Choiseul, Étienne François de

Choiseul, Étienne François de


(Comte de Stainville, Due de Choiseul). Born June 27 or 28,1719; died May 8, 1785, in Paris. French state figure.

Choiseul achieved a high rank in the army during the War of the Austrian Succession. He was ambassador to Rome from 1754 to 1757 and to Vienna in 1757 and 1758. Between 1758 and 1761 he served as minister of foreign affairs. He strengthened France’s ties to Austria with the Alliance Treaty of Versailles of 1758 and signed the Family Compact of 1761.

Choiseul was minister of war from 1761 to 1770. He also served as minister of the navy from 1761 to 1766 and for a second time as minister of foreign affairs from 1766 to 1770. Between 1758 and 1770 he was the dominant figure in the French government.

After France’s defeat in the Seven Years’ War of 1756–63, Choiseul began preparing the country to take revenge. His measures included reorganizing the army and navy and reinforcing the artillery. In 1770, Choiseul was removed from office and exiled to his estates at Chanteloup.

References in classic literature ?
It was one of those collections of stories of bloody murders, ghostly legends, and supernatural visitations, which, coarsely got up and illustrated, have a strange fascination for one who once begins to read them.
Chambers was strong beyond his years, and a good fighter; strong because he was coarsely fed and hard worked about the house, and a good fighter because Tom furnished him plenty of practice-- on white boys whom he hated and was afraid of.
Neither of them possessed energy or wit to belabour me soundly, but they insulted me as coarsely as they could in their little way: especially Celine, who even waxed rather brilliant on my personal defects--deformities she termed them.
And indeed bad as his clothes were and coarsely as he spoke, he had none of the appearance of a man who sailed before the mast, but seemed like a mate or skipper accustomed to be obeyed or to strike.
Coarsely followed, it would have merited a name grown somewhat unfamiliar to our ears.
I did not understand that she was hiding her feelings under irony, that this is usually the last refuge of modest and chaste-souled people when the privacy of their soul is coarsely and intrusively invaded, and that their pride makes them refuse to surrender till the last moment and shrink from giving expression to their feelings before you.
His glance was keen but showed cunning rather than intelligence; his lips were straight, and so thin that, as they closed, they were drawn in over the teeth; his cheek-bones were broad and projecting, a never-failing proof of audacity and craftiness; while the flatness of his forehead, and the enlargement of the back of his skull, which rose much higher than his large and coarsely shaped ears, combined to form a physiognomy anything but prepossessing, save in the eyes of such as considered that the owner of so splendid an equipage must needs be all that was admirable and enviable, more especially when they gazed on the enormous diamond that glittered in his shirt, and the red ribbon that depended from his button-hole.
The exterior was painted white on the front and on the end which was exposed to the street; but in the rear, and on the side which was intended to join the neighboring house, it was coarsely smeared with Spanish brown.
It was in great pains and upheavals--that I felt in every fibre but its dominant idea, to put it coarsely, was to get back a bit of its own.
He was a middle-sized man, coarsely clad as became his calling, with a coloured shirt protruding through the rent in his tattered coat.
In short, I was in a flutter for a little while and felt as if an old chord had been more coarsely touched than it ever had been since the days of the dear old doll, long buried in the garden.
We were troubled a little at dinner today by the conduct of an American, who talked very loudly and coarsely and laughed boisterously where all others were so quiet and well behaved.