Cholecystitis


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Wikipedia.

cholecystitis

[‚kō·lə‚sis′tīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the gallbladder.

Cholecystitis

 

an inflammation of the gallbladder that frequently occurs in cholelithiasis (commonly known as gallstone disease), after viral hepatitis and other infectious diseases, and in the presence of a chronic focal infection (such as tonsillitis) or parasitic disease (such as opisthorchosis).

Stoppages or changes in the composition of the bile, which may be related to a person’s diet, are contributing factors in cholecystitis. The condition often occurs in conjunction with cholangitis. Cholecystitis may be acute or chronic. In the acute form, the main symptoms are intermittent pain in the right abdomen radiating to the right shoulder and shoulder blade, nausea and vomiting, chills and elevated body temperature, and sometimes jaundice and pruritus. Peritonitis is a possible dangerous complication of acute cholecystitis. The symptoms of chronic cholecystitis are nausea, a dull pain in the right hypochondrium, and other disagreeable sensations after eating. Laboratory tests and cholecystocholangiograms are important means of diagnosing cholecystitis.

Conservative treatment of cholecystitis and other inflammatory diseases of the biliary tract is aimed chiefly at suppressing the infection (by means of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents) and increasing the outflow of bile (by special diet, cholagogues and antispasmodics, duodenal probing, and mineral waters such as Borzhom and Essentuki no. 4). Foods that are mechanically or chemically irritating are eliminated from the diet. In the case of acute cholecystitis, surgery is resorted to when conservative therapy is ineffectual. If the disease is chronic, an operation (cholecystectomy) is performed if indicated in the given case after a careful and comprehensive examination of the patient. An operation is not indicated for functional disturbances of the gallbladder (biliary dyskenesia).

REFERENCES

Fedorov, S. P. Zhelchnye kamni i khirurgiia zhelchnykh putei, 2nd ed. Leningrad-Moscow, 1934.
Vishnevskii, A. A., E. V. Grishkevich, and D. S. Sarkisov. Khronicheskii kal’kuleznyi kholetsistit i ego khirurgicheskoe lechenie. Leningrad, 1967.
Nogaller, A. M. Zabolevaniia zhelchnogo puzyria i zhelchnykh putei. Moscow, 1969.
Petrov, B. A., and E. I. Gal’perin. Khirurgiia vnepechenochnykh zhelchnykhprotokov. Moscow, 1971.
Khirurgiia pecheni i zhelchnykh protokov. Edited by A. A. Shalimov. Kiev, 1975.
Olivier, C. Chirurgie des voies biliaires extra- et intra-hépatiques. Paris, 1961.
Schwartz, S. Surgical Diseases of the Liver. New York, 1964.

V. R. ANAKHASIAN

References in periodicals archive ?
The initial diagnostic imaging of choice in patients with suspected acute cholecystitis is gallbladder ultrasound, with HIDA scan being used if the former has equivocal findings.
In addition, Calot's triangle may be difficult to delineate in inflamed conditions such as cholecystitis.
The diagnosis of acute cholecystitis was made by the presence of findings (Right upper quadrant tenderness, guarding, positive Murphy sign, localised rebound, rigidity), leukocytosis, fever and USG findings like thickened gallbladder wall and/or pericholecystic fluid.
5% in 2014) and grade II acute cholecystitis (from 70% in 2009 to 44.
9] These clinical features are not specific for XGC and there was no difference between the patients with cholecystitis and GBC.
Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy for severe cholecystitis.
Fever About half of people with cholecystitis develop a mild fever, but this is less typical in seniors.
Gallbladder torsion-induced emphysematous cholecystitis in a 16-year-old boy.
Among other pathologies; cholecystitis both acute and chronic is common.
8%) of the 34 patients with acute cholecystitis presented within 72 hours and had cholecystectomies within a week of admission as a result of a failed strategy of initial conservative management.
2-4] Acute cholecystitis as a complication of typhoid and various viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus, CMV and hepatitis A and B has been well described in the existing literature; however, the association of scarlet fever with acute cholecystitis has rarely been reported and its pathogenesis is not clear.
Cholecystitis usually occurs when the outlet from the gallbladder becomes blocked by a gallstone.