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(cho͝ong`chēng`) or


(cho͞ong`kĭng`), city and independent municipality (2010 pop. 28,846,170), 592 sq mi (1,534 sq km), in SE Sichuan prov., China, at the junction of the Chang and Jialing rivers. It is administered directly by the national government. The commercial center of W China, it commands a large river trade. Surrounded on three sides by water, it is situated on a rock promontory. A flourishing industrial city, it was opened for direct foreign trade in 1979. In the 1980s it became the site of an economic experiment, where factory managers were given more decision-making power and allowed to channel profits into expansion, and the early 21st cent. saw Chongqing developed as China's largest inland urban area to provide economic opportunity for the surrounding region's poorer rural inhabitants.

Chongqing's industries include a large-scale integrated iron and steel complex, oil and copper refineries, motor vehicle, munitions, computer and electronics, and biomedical products factories, cotton and silk mills, chemical and cement plants, food-processing establishments, machine shops, paper mills, and tanneries. Large coal and iron mines and a major oil field are nearby. Its many institutions of higher learning include Chongqing Univ., Chongqing Technical Univ., and a medical college. The Chongqing Library and the Chongqing Municipal Museum are important cultural centers.

Chongqing was opened as a treaty port in 1891. In Nov., 1937, just before the Japanese capture of Nanjing in the Second Sino-Japanese WarSino-Japanese War, Second,
1937–45, conflict between Japanese and Chinese forces for control of the Chinese mainland. The war sapped the Nationalist government's strength while allowing the Communists to gain control over large areas through organization of guerrilla units.
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, the capital of China was transferred to Chongqing, where it remained until the end of hostilities. During that time administrative agencies, educational institutions, and industrial plants from all over the country were relocated in Chongqing and the population more than tripled. The city was taken by the Communists on Nov. 30, 1949.


, Chungking, Ch'ung-ch'ing
a river port in SW China, in Sichuan province at the confluence of the Yangtze and Jialing rivers: site of a city since the 3rd millennium bc; wartime capital of China (1938--45); major trade centre for W China. Pop.: 4 975 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
15) According to Mark Leonard, Chongqing Municipality, an extended southwestern megacity of 30 million residents, has sought to become a "living laboratory" for Chinese-style deliberative governance, implementing such reforms as a freedom of information clause, a "regulation on public accountability" designed to make government officials more responsible to public scrutiny and a system of public hearings aimed at enabling citizens to have input on government decision-making.
In sprawling Chongqing municipality just east of Sichuan, 72 people were dead and 23 missing.
The China Insurance Regulatory Commission has also declared Chongqing Municipality and Sichuan Province to help Groupama grow in the country's middle and western regions.
Germany's LTU airline will operate the first air route from West China to Europe with a once weekly direct flight from Munich to southwest China's Chongqing Municipality.
The Fuling field in China's Chongqing Municipality is expected to become China's first shale gas field with an annual production capacity of 10 billion cubic meters in 2017, equivalent to an oil field with an annual capacity of 10 million tonnes.
Chongqing, Dhu-AlQa'dah 19, 1435, Sep 14, 2014, SPA -- At least 10 people were killed after severe downpours battered southwest China's Sichuan Province and Chongqing Municipality, local authorities said on Sunday.
The seminar, held in Liaoning Province, was attended by top officials from Liaoning, Zhejiang, Anhui and Guangdong provinces and Chongqing Municipality, reports Xinhua news agency.
PEKyN (CyHAN)- Inadequate cofferdams, illegal construction and poor supervision resulted in the bridge pier collapse which killed 11 people in southwest China's Chongqing Municipality in mid-October, local authorities said on Thursday.
Sinopec has drilled nearly 30 pilot shale gas wells in the Fuling area of Chongqing municipality in southwest China, part of the Sichuan basin -- one of the most promising geological zones for the unconventional fuel.
The former Communist Party leader of Chongqing municipality, who was expelled from the party last year in China's biggest political scandal in decades, goes on trial Thursday at the Jinan Intermediate People's Court on charges of bribery, graft and abuse of power, according to the official Xinhua News Agency.
Beijing, June 28 (Xinhua-ANI): A former official embroiled in a sex video scandal was sentenced to 13 years in jail for bribery on Friday in southwest China's Chongqing Municipality.
General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), a United States-based automaker, and its Chinese partner, SAIC Motor Corporation Limited and Wuling Motors, are constructing a new assembly plant in China's Chongqing Municipality.