Following the investigations of Locality 1 and the Upper Cave in Choukoutien
(now Zhoukoudian), Pei (1937) proposed a complete three-stage system for the Chinese Palaeolithic, and later modified it (Pei 1955).
After extensive study of prehistoric arrowheads, pottery shards, bone fragments, and cave paintings, paleoanthropologists all emphatically agree: Our early ancestors in Swartkrans (Africa) and Choukoutien
(China) did not adjust their Cave Program Object Memorandum (CPOM) to establish a multi-year study, costing several thousand she-goats and an equivalent number of hand-crafted stone chopping tools, in order to determine the operational value of fire.
At the Choukoutien
cave in China, layers 3 (younger) through 11 (older) contain fossil remains or other evidence of Homo erectus pekinensis including evidence for the use of fire.
Preliminary report on the Choukoutien
A Notes and News report (volume 13, 1939) on the discoveries in the Upper Cave at Choukoutien (now Zhoukoudien) emphasizes the similarities in tool types to those of Upper Palaeolithic Europe.
In 1938 Breuil (volume 12) suggested that this may have been preceded by an age of bone tools such as those emerging from Choukoutien and presumably reflected by Dart's South African `osteodontokeratic' culture.
Fossil man in China: The Choukoutien
cave deposits with a synopsis of our present knowledge of the Late Cenozoic in China.
Bone and antler industry of the Choukoutien
Sinanthropus site, Paleontologia Sinica n.
The search for ancient China is both a history of research and a general view of finds from sites ranging from Choukoutien
to the Great Wall.
The casts of the disappeared Choukoutien
fossils are now as valuable as their originals once were.