Christ


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Christ:

see JesusJesus
or Jesus Christ
, 1st-century Jewish teacher and prophet in whom Christians have traditionally seen the Messiah [Heb.,=annointed one, whence Christ from the Greek] and whom they have characterized as Son of God and as Word or Wisdom of God incarnate.
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Christ

 

(Greek Christós, “anointed one”), also called Jesus Christ, in Christian church teaching, the founder of Christianity. According to Gospel mythology, Christ was begotten by the “Holy Spirit” and was born of Mary, the wife of Joseph, in Bethlehem. As an infant Christ was taken to Egypt to escape from Herod I. He returned to Palestine and was baptized by John the Baptist. Gathering around him 12 disciples, among them Peter, Andrew, James, John, and Judas, he traveled throughout Palestine, preaching and working miracles. After being betrayed in Jerusalem by Judas for 30 pieces of silver, Christ was condemned to death during Passover week by the Roman governor Pontius Pilate along with two thieves. He was crucified, died, and was buried, but “after the Sabbath was over” he rose from the dead. An “antilegend” about Christ has also come down to us through the second-century Roman writer Celsus and in the Talmud and other sources according to which Christ was the son of Mary and the Roman soldier Panthera (Pandira) and was stoned to death for sorcery. Christian theology of the second, third, and fourth centuries developed the idea, alluded to in the New Testament, that Christ was the son of god, and he came to be regarded as the second person of the trinity. Orthodox Christianity conceived of Christ as god-man, in whom the human and the divine were united.

The question of the historical existence of Christ has provoked sharp controversy among specialists in religion. There are two basic schools of thought, the mythological and the historical. The first perceives Christ as a mythical figure, created out of totem beliefs or agricultural cults similar to those of Osiris and Tammuz. Some scholars regard the myth of Christ as a variant of the Buddha legend or the product of astrological speculation. The second school maintains that Christ is a historical person, citing as evidence the references to Christ contained in the works of Josephus Flavius and Tacitus, the second-century antilegends about Christ (which deny not his existence but his supposed divinity), and the early origin of the Gospels (papyrus fragments of the Gospel of St. John dating from the early second century). Among the arguments put forward by adherents of the mythological school are the discrepancies in the New Testament stories about Christ, the abundance of miracles ascribed to him, the errors in the description of the life and natural environment of Palestine, and the absence of information about Christ in the works of Greco-Roman writers of the first century. (The school disputes the authenticity of the references to Christ in the writings of Josephus Flavius and Tacitus.) Some historians of the mythological school contend that the Gospels were written at the end of the second century, that is, much later than the life of Christ that they describe, and that the image of Christ in the Gospels emerged under the influence of Plutarch.

Occupying an important place in medieval literature and art, Christ remained at the center of attention of the Renaissance artists. In modern times, Christ was perceived as a moral ideal (L. Tolstoy), as a revolutionary rebel (K. Kautsky), and as a hero-martyr (E. Renan).

REFERENCES

Drews, A. Otritsanie istorichnosti lisusa v proshlom i nastoiashchem. Moscow, 1930. (Translated from German.)
Couchoud, P. Zagadka lisusa. Moscow, 1930. (Translated from French.)
Kublanov, M. M. lisus Khristosbog, chelovek, mif? Moscow, 1964.
Kazhdan, A. “Istoricheskoe zerno predaniia ob Iisuse.” Nauka i religiia, 1966, no. 2.
Kryvelev, I. A. Chto znaet istoriia ob Iisuse Khriste? Moscow, 1969.
Kryvelev, I. A. Istoriia religii, vol. 1. Moscow, 1975. Pages 145–155.

Christ

forgives man for his sins. [Christianity: Misc.]

Christ

Agnus Dei
lamb of god. [Christian Tradition: Brewer Dictionary, 17]
bread
symbol of Christ’s body in Eucharist. [Christian Tradition: Luke 22:19]
chi rho
monogram of first two letters of Christ’s name in Greek. [Christian Symbolism: Appleton, 111]
Emmanuel
Jesus, especially as the Messiah. [N.T.: Matthew 1:23]
fish
Greek acronym for Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour. [Christian Symbolism: Child, 210]
Galilee
Jesus’s area of activity. [Christianity: Wigoder, 203]
Good Shepherd
[N.T.: John 10:11–14]
ichthys
Greek for ‘fish’; early Christian symbol and mystical charm. See fish. [Christian Symbolism: Brewer Dictionary, 478]
I.N.R.I.
acronym of Iesus Nazarenus, Rex Iudaeorum ‘Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews,’ inscription affixed to Christ’s cross as a mockery. [Christianity: Brewer Note-Book, 450]
IHS
(I.H.S.) first three letters of Greek spelling of Jesus; also taken as acronym of Iesus Hominum Salvator ‘Jesus, Savior of Mankind.’ [Christian Symbolism: Brewer Dictionary, 480]
King of Kings
appellation for Jesus Christ. [N.T.: Revelation 17:14]
lamb
the Lord as the sacrificial animal. [Christian Symbolism: O.T.: Isaiah 53:7; N.T.: John 1:29]
lion
symbol expressing power and courage of Jesus. [Christian Symbolism: N.T.: Revelation 5:5]
Lord of the Dance
“At Bethlehem I had my birth.” [Br. Folk Music: Carter, “Lord of the Dance” in Taylor, 128]
Lord’s Anointed, the
designation for Christ or the Messiah. [Christian Tradition: O.T.: I Samuel 26:9]
Man of Sorrows
epithet for the prophesied Messiah. [O.T.: Isaiah 53:3]
Messiah
expected leader who will deliver the Jews from their enemies; applied by Christians to Jesus. [O.T., N.T.: Brewer Dictionary, 602]
Piers the Plowman
English plowman who becomes allegorical figure of Christ incarnate. [Br. Lit.: The Vision of William, Concerning Piers the Plowman, Magill III, 1105–1107]
star
token of the Lord and his coming. [Christian Symbolism: O.T.: Numbers, 24:17; N.T.: Revelation 22:16]
vine
gives nourishment to branches or followers. [Christian Symbolism: Appleton, 107; N.T.: John 15:5]
wine
symbol of Christ’s blood in Eucharist. [Christian Tradition: “Eucharist” in Cross, 468–469]

Christ

1. Jesus of Nazareth (Jesus Christ), regarded by Christians as fulfilling Old Testament prophecies of the Messiah
2. the Messiah or anointed one of God as the subject of Old Testament prophecies
3. an image or picture of Christ
References in periodicals archive ?
The purpose of the comparison is to raise essential issues and show different ways that commentators understand the "location" of the exalted Christ (in heaven or on earth) and the manner in which he continues to exercise his agency (impersonal or personal).
Contrary to what most people think, the heart of John Calvin's theology is not predestination, it is union with Christ.
If Christ were to come next year, who would stop their lives to notice?
A lot of people don't know we believe in Christ even though our name is the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, so we just want them to know that we do believe in Christ and we honor his birth and that it's a big part of our lives,'' said Sharon Graham, who organized the event.
Secondly, the reception of the Body and Blood of Christ is a foretaste of the transfiguration of our bodies by Christ.
The Dead Christ will be the cynosure of this spring's show at the Kunstmuseum Basel, which addresses Holbein's complex response to Protestantism, the theological revolution whose hostility to cult images threatened the livelihood of every religious painter.
It is time for us to realize the gospel, and to consider upon what terms we took up profession, and what the cross of Christ means.
Sumner's sophisticated, rigorous, and theologically challenging work comprises a strenuous effort to move Christian discourse in inter-religious dialogue past what he calls "the quagmire of pluralism"--that is, the impasse created by competing truth claims among the various faiths in dialogue, which appear to require ceding the primacy of Christ in order to participate.
In fact, the Windsor Report takes its point of departure exactly from such an understanding of Christian unity when it states in paragraph 45: "All those called by the gospel of Jesus Christ and set apart by God's gift of baptism are incorporated into the communion of the Body of Christ.
Gibson naturally has a different understanding of this commandment (indeed, Catholics and Protestants do not agree on the numbering of the commandment at issue here), which is why images of Christ are so ingrained in Catholic modes of worship and evangelism.
While on this earth, however, man is progressively educated to put on Christ, a process that takes place, at least partly, through images.
A federal judge in late August ordered a South Carolina town council to discontinue pre-meeting prayers that include references to Jesus Christ or other deities associated with specific faiths.