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Christian IV,1577–1648, king of Denmark and Norway (1588–1648), son and successor of Frederick II. After assuming (1596) personal rule from a regency, he concentrated on building the navy, industry, and commerce. He rebuilt OsloOslo
, city (1995 pop. 482,555), capital of Norway, of Akershus co., and of Oslo co. (175 sq mi/453 sq km), SE Norway, at the head of the Oslofjord (a deep inlet of the Skagerrak).
..... Click the link for more information. and renamed it Christiania. Aroused when Charles IXCharles IX,
1550–1611, king of Sweden (1604–11), youngest son of Gustavus I. He was duke of Södermanland, Närke, and Värmland before his accession. During the reign of his brother, John III (1568–92), he opposed John's leanings toward Catholicism.
..... Click the link for more information. of Sweden asserted authority over Lapland, he made war on Sweden (the so-called Kalmar War, 1611–13) and largely dictated the peace. In the Thirty Years WarThirty Years War,
1618–48, general European war fought mainly in Germany. General Character of the War
There were many territorial, dynastic, and religious issues that figured in the outbreak and conduct of the war.
..... Click the link for more information. , urged on by England, France, and the Netherlands, he invaded (1625) Germany to defend Protestantism. Defeated (1626) by TillyTilly, Johannes Tserklaes, count of
, 1559–1632, general in Bavarian and later imperial service during the Thirty Years War. A younger son of a noble family of Brabant, he served under Duke Alessandro Farnese and against the Turks before entering the service of Duke
..... Click the link for more information. at Lutter, he was driven back in 1627. Schleswig, Holstein, and Jutland were overrun and plundered; Stralsund was besieged by the imperial troops under WallensteinWallenstein or Waldstein, Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von
, 1583–1634, imperial general in the Thirty Years War, b. Bohemia.
..... Click the link for more information. . Christian, with the help of Gustavus II of Sweden, raised the siege of Stralsund, but in 1629 he signed with Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II a separate peace that was lenient to Denmark. His anti-Swedish policy brought on a war with Sweden (1643–45) in which Christian lost the Norwegian provinces of Jamtland and Harjedalen. His son Frederick III succeeded him.
1577--1648, king of Denmark and Norway (1588--1648): defeated in the Thirty Years' War (1629) and by Sweden (1645)