Christian Science

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Mary Morse Baker
BirthplaceBow, New Hampshire

Christian Science,

religion founded upon principles of divine healing and laws expressed in the acts and sayings of Jesus, as discovered and set forth by Mary Baker EddyEddy, Mary Baker,
1821–1910, founder of the Christian Science movement, b. Bow, N.H. As physical frailty prevented her regular school attendance, she spent the early part of her education learning at home from her brother Albert Baker.
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 and practiced by the Church of Christ, Scientist. The church teaches that God is good and the only reality, and that sin, evil, and illness are overcome on the basis of this understanding. Adherents rely on spiritual, rather than medical or material, means for healing. The occasion of Mary Baker Eddy's discovery of divine healing was her immediate recovery of life and health when in 1866 she read an account of healing by Jesus in the New Testament. In 1875 her Science and Health (later published as Science and Health, with Key to the Scriptures) was published. In 1879 she established the Church of Christ, Scientist. In Boston in 1892 was organized the First Church of Christ, Scientist—the Mother Church, of which Christian Science churches throughout the world are branches. Each individual church is self-governing and self-supporting, but all accept the tenets framed by the founder and incorporated in the Church Manual. Upon Eddy's death in 1910, the administrative power was assumed, as laid down in the Manual, by the Christian Science Board of Directors. An extremely active organization, the board enabled Christian Science to grow steadily in numbers and scope of activity during the first third of the 20th cent. Of the numerous publications the church issues, the most important include the Christian Science Monitor, a daily newspaper; the Christian Science Quarterly; the Christian Science Sentinel; and the Christian Science Journal. These are published by the Christian Science Publishing Society. Other activities are conducted by a board of education and a board of lectureship. The churches have no individual pastors. Services are conducted by two readers, one reading from the Scriptures, the other from Science and Health. All churches use the same lessons at the same time. The teachings are drawn from the life and words of Jesus. Although most Christian Scientists are in the United States, the religion is found in 70 countries with large Protestant populations. A great percentage of its adherents are women.


See R. Peel, Christian Science (1958); S. Gottschalk, The Emergence of Christian Science in American Religious Life (1973); C. Fraser, God's Perfect Child: Living and Dying in the Christian Science Church (1999).

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Christian Science complex in Boston, Massachusetts, the organization's headquarters. Fortean Picture Library.

Christian Science

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

In 1990 the Church of Christ, Scientist, was in serious trouble. Enrollments were down, giving was down, and a disastrous attempt to begin a television station, the Monitor Channel, had cost the church some $316 million. The station's shutdown was soon followed by that of the money-losing Monitor Radio network. From an estimated 268,915 U.S. followers in 1936, membership had dropped to 106,000. The 11,200 healers that practiced in 1941 had seen their numbers shrink to only 1,820. Worse yet, a landmark Massachusetts criminal court had, amid much publicity, convicted David and Ginger Twitchel of manslaughter in the tragic death of their twoyear-old son resulting from a bowel obstruction, a death the court thought could have been prevented if the parents had gone to a doctor instead of relying on a Christian Science practitioner.

But by 2000 things had changed considerably. Seven hundred new bookstores in Latin America now carry the religion's textbook and Bible companion, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures. The book is sold at agricultural fairs in Africa and book fairs in Japan. Some 2,500 people filled an airport hanger in Kinshasa in the Congo to attend a Christian Science lecture.

Clearly the church has discovered a new and enthusiastic audience. In September 2002, the new Mary Baker Eddy Library for the Betterment of Humanity opened in Boston, right next to the mother church on Massachusetts Avenue. Clay Bennett, editorial cartoonist for the Christian Science Monitor, the newspaper begun by Mary Baker Eddy, won a Pulitzer Prize earlier in the year.

The world seems to have rediscovered the teachings of Mary Baker Eddy, founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist, popularly known as Christian Science.

The church's theological centerpiece and reason for being is based in its belief that the root of illness lies in the mind, not just the organs of the body. In Science and Health Eddy wrote: "A patient under the influence of mortal mind is healed only by removing the influence on him of this mind." She had come to this conclusion through her own experience of self-healing and a study of Jesus' cures as recorded in the Gospels. Since then countless case studies, probably at least one from every member of the church, have confirmed Eddy's thesis to the satisfaction of thousands of believers over the years. They flock to Christian Science Reading Rooms, located in most cities nationwide, to read and listen to lectures. During church services, passages from the Bible are followed with readings from Science and Health. The Massachusetts Metaphysical College in Boston trains healers to aid recovery from illness by working with the patient to correct intellectual and spiritual obstructions caused by false thinking.

Eddy, while believing firmly that no one person should ever control any institution, especially the church she founded, was one of the most influential women of the nineteenth century. Given the sexism of that time, her church probably received less support than it would have had it been founded by a man. Even so, Christian Science thrived and is no doubt here to stay. The church has made some concessions. Whether or not members will see doctors during illness, especially the illness of a child, is left up to the individual. Like all churches, there are splits and divisions. Some people think the very fact of going to a doctor is a confession of faithlessness that will prevent healing. Others think there are times when medicine can be used as a physical crutch, needed until a spiritual healing takes place.

A lot of New Age thought is simply the rediscovery of ancient Eastern religion. The fact that so much of that thought resonates with Eddy's teachings has no doubt aided the surge of renewed interest in Christian Science, regarded by some as perhaps the first hundred-year-old New Age religion. But a faith with such a large base of anecdotal evidence and personal, eyewitness accounts of healing cannot be ignored. New ways of describing those healings and explaining the basis of Christian Science may be utilized, much to the dismay of fundamentalists within the organization. But in the words of Virginia Harris, chair of the church's board of directors, "I like change because it is progressive. The world goes forward, so no matter how much you whine or talk about the past you can't get back there.... [But] as you go forward with change, always [remain] true to who you are."

Christian Science

the religious system and teaching of the Church of Christ, Scientist. It was founded by Mary Baker Eddy (1866) and emphasizes spiritual healing and the unreality of matter
References in periodicals archive ?
In the case of Robyn Twitchell, it seems clear to most physicians that respecting the beliefs and choices of Christian Scientists meant that Robyn's right to life and his right to minimally adequate health care were jeopardized.
To a Christian Scientist, Mary Baker Eddy is nothing less than the vehicle chosen for the second coming of Christ," Brenneman says.
If people of all religious persuasions had the faith of Christian Scientists, only the 15 percent who declare themselves atheists would need health care.
Even pausing to consider such questions as how class and theology shaped the late twentieth-century alliance between Christian Scientists and pentecostals in pursuit of religious exemptions from the law, or resting longer with questions of how parents can bear to see their children suffer in this way, would allow Peters to make a more persuasive argument.
Next week's episode finds him, with pal Richard Lewis, subverting the Christian Scientist faith of Richard's new girlfriend in a most unseemly fashion - and offending everyone else in sight.
One can imagine one medicine for Christian Scientists (minimal recourse to antibiotics, etc.
The Christian Scientists can buy a hospital, but good luck trying to run it.
During this 20-year period, Christian Scientists around the globe also got to know Russ as the voice of Sentinel Radio, the church's weekly radio broadcast, which airs on local radio stations throughout the world.
His funeral, as was the custom, was held from his home on Main Street with the full Christian Scientists services, conducted by George Goodwin.
These issues remain very important for Christian scientists who may need a reminder of this history.
The American Scientific Affiliation, a group of Christian scientists, published a paper discussing the environment in 1958 and provided a forum for a heated debate that arose regarding environmental issues in 1995.
In one sense, trial refers to the ways Christian Scientists saw healing in their own lives as a test case for the truth of Christian Science, which could in turn convince others of this truth.

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