Chromaffin Cells


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Related to Chromaffin Cells: adrenal medulla, Catecholamines, pheochromocytoma, Chromaffin granules, Enterochromaffin cells

Chromaffin Cells

 

in humans and other vertebrates, endocrine cells that elaborate adrenaline, noradrenaline, and probably a number of other catecholamines contained in their cytoplasmic granules; the cells secrete these substances into the blood. Chromaffin cells are derived from neural ectoderm. After fixation with chromium salts, the cells acquire a dark-brown color, hence the name “chromaffin.” The aggregate of chromaffin cells in the body make up the adrenal system.

In humans and other higher vertebrates the cells are polygonal or irregular, sometimes having barely perceptible appendages that are entwined with the capillaries and form aggregates— paraganglia—in various parts of the body (near the nerve ganglia and fibers, in the region of the cervicothoracic vessels, and in the parenchyma of organs). The largest aggregate of chromaffin cells is the adrenal medulla. The elaboration and discharge of neurohormones from the cytoplasmic granules into the blood are regulated by neuromechanisms. In lower vertebrates the chromaffin cells have many appendages and are diffused in the walls of the large arteries of the trunk and deep within the cardiac muscle; discharge of hormones from the cytoplasmic granules is continuous. Chromaffin cells have also been discovered in invertebrates, for example, in the ganglia of the ventral nerve cord in annelid worms.

REFERENCES

See references under PARAGANGLIA.

N. A. SMITTEN

References in periodicals archive ?
To ascertain the apparent absence of presynaptic effects of BDE-47, we investigated effects on catecholamine release in chromaffin cells obtained from mice exposed to vehicle or to a higher dose (68 mg (140 [micro]mol)/kg bw) of BDE-47.
To ascertain the absence of presynaptic effects, we investigated neurotransmitter release from chromaffin cells from BDE-47-exposed [68 mg (140 [micro]mol)/kg bw] mice.
Dual role of calbindin-D in vesicular catecholamine release from mouse chromaffin cells.
Pappas GD, Lazorthes Y, Bes JC, Tafani M, Winnie AP, "Relief of Intractable Cancer Pain by Human Chromaffin Cell Transplants: Experience at Two Medical Centers", Neurol.
Lazorthes Y, Sagen J, Sallerin B, Tkaczuk J et al, "Human Chromaffin Cell Graft into the CSF for Cancer Pain Management: A Prospective Phase II Clinical Study", Pain, 2000, Jul.
Transplants of adrenal medullary chromaffin cells reduce forelimb and hindlimb allodynia in a rodent model of chronic central pain after spinal hemisection injury.
Immortalized chromaffin cells disimmortalized with Cre/lox site-directed recombination for use in cell therapy for pain.
The analgesic potential of intraventicular polymer-encapsulated adrenal chromaffin cells in a rodent model of chronic neuropathic pain.
Differences between the mechanisms of adrenaline and noradrenaline secretion from isolated, bovine, adrenal chromaffin cells.
Chromaffin cells were washed three times before experiments.
2+]/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor KN-62 inhibits adrenal medullary chromaffin cell functions, Journal of Neurochemistry, 2517-2522.
Congener specific effects by polychlorinated biphenyls on catecholamine content and release in chromaffin cells.