In the technique developed at Newcastle, stem cells with XY chromosomes (male) were developed into germline stem cells which were then prompted to complete meiosis - cell division with halving of the chromosome set
Overall, caffeine was a risk factor when the fetal karyotype (the full chromosome set
of the nucleus of the cell) was normal but not when the karyotype was abnormal.
Polyploidy involves the multiplication of an entire chromosome set
, being the best-known mode of discontinuous change in nuclear DNA content regarding the closest relatives (Gallardo et al.
Because they will later fuse with the female sex cell, or egg, the pollen grains (like the egg) contain only half the chromosome set
and are thus easier to count than other cells, which contain the double set.
manipulation and sex control in fish.
Unfertilized eggs, with only a maternal chromosome set
, develop into males.
Spontaneous diploidization of the maternal chromosome set
was shown to occur in hybrid larvae, as 2.
From these polar bodies in the cytoplasm protein fibers form which correctly distribute the duplicated chromosome set
to the newly forming daughter cells.
Plant biologists have long suspected polyploidy - the heritable acquisition of extra chromosome sets
- was a gateway to speciation.
In this condition, the development of XY over XX embryos is affected because the presence of the Y chromosome sets
the embryo on a path of male reproductive development that remains incomplete due to a lack of functional androgen receptors.
Research has shown that trout with three chromosome sets
grow faster than fish with two sets because they're unable to reproduce.
The sex of bumblebees is normally determined by the number of chromosome sets
an individual receives.