Cholecystitis

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cholecystitis

[‚kō·lə‚sis′tīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the gallbladder.

Cholecystitis

 

an inflammation of the gallbladder that frequently occurs in cholelithiasis (commonly known as gallstone disease), after viral hepatitis and other infectious diseases, and in the presence of a chronic focal infection (such as tonsillitis) or parasitic disease (such as opisthorchosis).

Stoppages or changes in the composition of the bile, which may be related to a person’s diet, are contributing factors in cholecystitis. The condition often occurs in conjunction with cholangitis. Cholecystitis may be acute or chronic. In the acute form, the main symptoms are intermittent pain in the right abdomen radiating to the right shoulder and shoulder blade, nausea and vomiting, chills and elevated body temperature, and sometimes jaundice and pruritus. Peritonitis is a possible dangerous complication of acute cholecystitis. The symptoms of chronic cholecystitis are nausea, a dull pain in the right hypochondrium, and other disagreeable sensations after eating. Laboratory tests and cholecystocholangiograms are important means of diagnosing cholecystitis.

Conservative treatment of cholecystitis and other inflammatory diseases of the biliary tract is aimed chiefly at suppressing the infection (by means of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents) and increasing the outflow of bile (by special diet, cholagogues and antispasmodics, duodenal probing, and mineral waters such as Borzhom and Essentuki no. 4). Foods that are mechanically or chemically irritating are eliminated from the diet. In the case of acute cholecystitis, surgery is resorted to when conservative therapy is ineffectual. If the disease is chronic, an operation (cholecystectomy) is performed if indicated in the given case after a careful and comprehensive examination of the patient. An operation is not indicated for functional disturbances of the gallbladder (biliary dyskenesia).

REFERENCES

Fedorov, S. P. Zhelchnye kamni i khirurgiia zhelchnykh putei, 2nd ed. Leningrad-Moscow, 1934.
Vishnevskii, A. A., E. V. Grishkevich, and D. S. Sarkisov. Khronicheskii kal’kuleznyi kholetsistit i ego khirurgicheskoe lechenie. Leningrad, 1967.
Nogaller, A. M. Zabolevaniia zhelchnogo puzyria i zhelchnykh putei. Moscow, 1969.
Petrov, B. A., and E. I. Gal’perin. Khirurgiia vnepechenochnykh zhelchnykhprotokov. Moscow, 1971.
Khirurgiia pecheni i zhelchnykh protokov. Edited by A. A. Shalimov. Kiev, 1975.
Olivier, C. Chirurgie des voies biliaires extra- et intra-hépatiques. Paris, 1961.
Schwartz, S. Surgical Diseases of the Liver. New York, 1964.

V. R. ANAKHASIAN

References in periodicals archive ?
Chronic cholecystitis was the most common histopathological diagnosis in the gall bladder specimen of the patients included, present in 79 out of the 90 patients (87.
24% among 1018 patients who were operated for gall bladder stone or chronic cholecystitis, which was in similar in a study conducted by Yildirim et al.
Chronic cholecystitis was defined as a thickened gallbladder wall with evidence of fibrosis in the anatomical plane between the gallbladder and the liver.
Common histological findings in chronic cholecystitis are fibrosis, thickening of wall and lymphocytic infiltration8.
The commonest appearance was chronic cholecystitis in both groups.
In other words it is a morphological variant of chronic cholecystitis.
To compare the phospho-mTOR expression between chronic cholecystitis (with and without metaplasia) and advanced GBC, we considered that phospho-mTOR is overexpressed in tumors only when this protein is detected at high levels in neoplastic cells.
Six had been diagnosed with arterial hypertension, four with chronic gastritis and gastroduodenitis, four with chronic cholecystitis, three with chronic bronchitis and two with thyreoiditis.
For instance, chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis (Figure 1) is taught with the ultrasound image to get the clinical diagnostic picture coupled with the pathology.
Even with prompt diagnosis and treatment acute cholangitis can lead to septicemia and complications like emphysema, gangrene, perforation and chronic cholecystitis [2].

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