Cholecystitis

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cholecystitis

[‚kō·lə‚sis′tīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the gallbladder.

Cholecystitis

 

an inflammation of the gallbladder that frequently occurs in cholelithiasis (commonly known as gallstone disease), after viral hepatitis and other infectious diseases, and in the presence of a chronic focal infection (such as tonsillitis) or parasitic disease (such as opisthorchosis).

Stoppages or changes in the composition of the bile, which may be related to a person’s diet, are contributing factors in cholecystitis. The condition often occurs in conjunction with cholangitis. Cholecystitis may be acute or chronic. In the acute form, the main symptoms are intermittent pain in the right abdomen radiating to the right shoulder and shoulder blade, nausea and vomiting, chills and elevated body temperature, and sometimes jaundice and pruritus. Peritonitis is a possible dangerous complication of acute cholecystitis. The symptoms of chronic cholecystitis are nausea, a dull pain in the right hypochondrium, and other disagreeable sensations after eating. Laboratory tests and cholecystocholangiograms are important means of diagnosing cholecystitis.

Conservative treatment of cholecystitis and other inflammatory diseases of the biliary tract is aimed chiefly at suppressing the infection (by means of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents) and increasing the outflow of bile (by special diet, cholagogues and antispasmodics, duodenal probing, and mineral waters such as Borzhom and Essentuki no. 4). Foods that are mechanically or chemically irritating are eliminated from the diet. In the case of acute cholecystitis, surgery is resorted to when conservative therapy is ineffectual. If the disease is chronic, an operation (cholecystectomy) is performed if indicated in the given case after a careful and comprehensive examination of the patient. An operation is not indicated for functional disturbances of the gallbladder (biliary dyskenesia).

REFERENCES

Fedorov, S. P. Zhelchnye kamni i khirurgiia zhelchnykh putei, 2nd ed. Leningrad-Moscow, 1934.
Vishnevskii, A. A., E. V. Grishkevich, and D. S. Sarkisov. Khronicheskii kal’kuleznyi kholetsistit i ego khirurgicheskoe lechenie. Leningrad, 1967.
Nogaller, A. M. Zabolevaniia zhelchnogo puzyria i zhelchnykh putei. Moscow, 1969.
Petrov, B. A., and E. I. Gal’perin. Khirurgiia vnepechenochnykh zhelchnykhprotokov. Moscow, 1971.
Khirurgiia pecheni i zhelchnykh protokov. Edited by A. A. Shalimov. Kiev, 1975.
Olivier, C. Chirurgie des voies biliaires extra- et intra-hépatiques. Paris, 1961.
Schwartz, S. Surgical Diseases of the Liver. New York, 1964.

V. R. ANAKHASIAN

References in periodicals archive ?
The majority of these cases were eventually shown to have choledocholithiasis with concurrent chronic cholecystitis.
The majority of false-positive results occur in cases of chronic cholecystitis (41,74-77) Arguments are made that given their intractable pain, these patients should have probably undergone cholecystectomy anyway, regardless of whether they have AC or CC.
Examples of staining intensity are illustrated in Figure 1, showing positive staining to phospho-mTOR in the cytoplasm of gallbladder cancer cells (Figure 1, D through F), whereas the chronic cholecystitis tissue shows a variable intensity (Figure 1, A through C).
Of the 51 chronic cholecystitis analyzed, 49 (96%) had low CTGF expression, whereas only 2 (4%) showed high CTGF levels.
We report the first incidence of chronic cholecystitis resulting in a fistula between the gallbladder and a duplication cyst overlying the stomach.
Nagata et al noted that reflux and stasis of the pancreatic juice into the gallbladder may induce chronic cholecystitis with intestinal metaplasia (8), and this may play an important role in the pathogenesis of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma.
The pathology report showed evidence of cholelithiasis and chronic cholecystitis.

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