lead poisoning

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lead poisoning



(plŭm`bĭz'əm), intoxication of the system by organic compounds containing leadlead,
metallic chemical element; symbol Pb [Lat. plumbum]; at. no. 82; at. wt. 207.2; m.p. 327.502°C;; b.p. about 1,740°C;; sp. gr. 11.35 at 20°C;; valence +2 or +4.
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. These enter the body by respiration (of dust, fumes, or sprays) or by ingestion of food or other substances that contain lead. Lead poisoning, formerly a leading occupational hazard in industrialized countries, can be an acute episode but is usually a chronic, cumulative disease brought about by continuous exposure.

See also occupational diseaseoccupational disease,
illness incurred because of the conditions or environment of employment. Unlike with accidents, some time usually elapses between exposure to the cause and development of symptoms. In some instances, symptoms may not become evident for 20 years or more.
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Many of the traditional sources of lead in the United States have been minimized by a variety of federal laws, enacted from 1978 on, banning lead paint and glazes and leaded gasolinesgasoline
or petrol,
light, volatile mixture of hydrocarbons for use in the internal-combustion engine and as an organic solvent, obtained primarily by fractional distillation and "cracking" of petroleum, but also obtained from natural gas, by destructive distillation
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, and prohibiting the use of lead pipes in construction and the use of lead solder in food and soda cans. Workplace exposure has been regulated by laws requiring the use of respirators, dust suppressors, and proper ventilation, and lead waste disposal guidelines have been developed. Continuing sources of environmental lead include water that has passed through old lead pipes, paint in older buildings, lead improperly disposed of in public landfills, and industrial sources such as mining, smelting, and recycling processes necessary to produce lead for batteries and other products.

Young children are usually exposed by ingesting paint chips containing lead. This source is most prevalent in poor areas where old, peeling lead-containing paint and plaster in rundown housing is common. Inadequately nourished or emotionally deprived children who resort to chewing inedible things (a condition known as pica) are most susceptible.

Effects and Treatment

Acute lead poisoning can result in abdominal discomfort, nervous system damage, and encephalitis. Chronic exposure is characterized by a blue line on the gums and can lead to damage to the brain, kidneys, nervous system, and red blood cells. Even low levels can contribute to hypertension in older people or to "silent lead poisoning" in exposed children, which affects the developing brain and leads to visual-motor problems, lowered intelligence, shortened attention span, and antisocial behavior. Lower doses may be treated by altering the diet to counteract lead's effects and and cleaning the person's environment to reduce intake. Higher doses are treated with chelating agentschelating agents
. Certain organic compounds are capable of forming coordinate bonds (see chemical bond) with metals through two or more atoms of the organic compound; such organic compounds are called chelating agents.
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, drugs that remove lead from the body, but chelation's effects do not appear to extend to the brain. Symptoms recur upon subsequent exposure, and some of the effects of a mother's exposure can be passed to her children and grandchildren.

Lead poisoning

A condition arising from breathing the fumes of lead compounds, or ingesting lead paint and water contaminated by lead pipes.

lead poisoning

[′led ′pȯiz·ən·iŋ]
Poisoning due to ingestion or absorption of lead over a prolonged period of time; characterized by colic, brain disease, anemia, and inflammation of peripheral nerves.

lead poisoning

acute or chronic poisoning by lead or its salts, characterized by abdominal pain, vomiting, convulsions, and coma
References in periodicals archive ?
8 ppm in drinking water) results in a significant rise in arterial pressure and doubling the number of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta pointing to the atherogenic effects of chronic lead exposure.
Although some evidence suggests that bone lead may be a risk factor in various disease states associated with chronic lead exposure, definitive correlations have not been demonstrated.
Measures of chronic lead exposure may serve as strong predictors of impaired nerve function.
We report here on the use of CPT to examine different nerve fiber populations in the upper extremities of a group of current lead workers with substantial chronic lead exposure and a broad range of ergonomic stressors (ESs).
The MRS findings are consistent with the hypothesis that chronic lead exposure caused neuronal loss, which may contribute to the impairment in cognitive function.
Reproductive toxicity of chronic lead exposure in the female cynomologus monkey.
Although a mild dose-response relationship was noted among women with very high blood lead concentrations, none of the site-specific cancers examined showed a statistically significant increase in risk with chronic lead exposure.

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