Chronography


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Chronography

 

a medieval historical account of the principal stages of world history since “the creation of the world.” The sources of such chronographies included biblical texts, the works of ancient writers and church fathers, church histories, hagiographies, the Apocrypha, and various chronicles. Works of this type contained historical, literary, and geographic information. Western European chronographies date back to the seventh century; Byzantine chronographies date from the sixth through the 15th century. The Byzantine chronographies included, in addition to the customary ones, short compositions that were known as paschal chronographies and were intended for use in educational institutions.

Among the best-known chronographies are those of John Malalas (sixth century), Georgios Amartolos (ninth century, continued in the tenth century), and Theophanes the Confessor (ninth century). Translations of the first two appeared in Kievan Rus’ around the middle of the 11th century. A Russian version appeared soon thereafter—the chronography (Khronograf po velikomu izlozheniiu) that was one of the sources of the Primary Chronicle, or Tale of Bygone Years. Various versions of this chronography appeared in the 13th and 14th centuries.

A work known as “The Hellenic Chronicle, Second Edition” appeared in Rus’ around the mid-15th century; its new narrative style was developed in the “Russian Chronography” that appeared in the late 15th or early 16th century. The oldest portion of the latter work was preserved in a chronography dated 1512. The Russian Chronography made use of new Byzantine sources as well as of South Slavic writings and condensed Russian chronicle compilations of the late 15th century. In its turn, this chronography was the source of various other works, including the one known as the “Western Russian Chronography” (which drew on M. Bielski’s Chronicle of the World for its account of European history), the “Extensive Chronography” (preserved in editions of 1599 and 1601), and chronographies dated 1617 and 1620 (the former providing valuable information on Russian history of the early 17th century). The later Russian chronographies were used as sources of local chronographies in Bulgaria, Serbia, Moldavia, and Walachia. Chronographies of a distinctive type continued to appear until the mid-18th century.

REFERENCES

Polnoe sobrante russkikh letopisei, vol. 22, parts 1–2. St. Petersburg, 1911–14.
Popov, A. N. Obzor khronografov russkoi redaktsii, parts 1–2. Moscow, 1866–69.
Tvorogov, O. V. Drevnerusskie khronografy. Leningrad, 1975.
References in periodicals archive ?
The few investigations that have examined the chronography of children's interactions were concerned with whether the conversational time patterns of the children exhibited CIT, as well as the effects of age, gender, and ethnicity on the conversational time patterns of the children.
This independence has long been a feature of the work of Popham on the Euboeans and Ridgway on the Phoenicians, being prepared to extend history and explanation backwards beyond the watershed of the beginnings of 5th-century Greek chronography.
He discusses what can be found by Greek pagan historians of the period about political historiography, local historiography, histories and biographies of emperors, and chronography.
For what it is worth, this preliminary comparison between al-Azdi and al-Tabari bears witness to the complexities of second- and third-century practices of transmission and composition (the two were disentangled only gradually--and incompletely at that); to the inadequacy of Leiden al-Tabari; and to the ambivalent character of local chronography, which, while deeply indebted to the imperial tradition, remained independent of it not only for local material, but also for imperial history too.
Scott is on the trail of such developments in "The Division of the Earth in Jubilees 8:11-9:15 and Early Christian Chronography," the last essay, in which he argues that Hippolytus' Chronicon was influenced by Jubilees 8-9.
A connection with astrology has also long been suspected (most recently, Swerdlow 1998), and an attempt has been made to prove a partial dependence of the chronicles on Assyrian chronography (Weissert 1992).
The continuing postponement of the CHC volume for which this study was composed has placed him (and other contributors) in a difficult position, having in some degree ruptured the proper chronography of scholarly evolution.
The complexity is caused by conflicting legends, the symbolic nature of Mandaean chronography, the late date and complex transmission history of many crucial manuscripts, prior reconstructions of mixed historical value and accuracy (as well as outright inaccuracy), and the fact that the Mandaeans were a "defeated" people.