Chukchi

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Chukchi

 

(Luorawetlan), the language of the Chukchi people. Chukchi is spoken by some 11,000 people (1970 census), most of them living in the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug and in Nizhneko-lymsk Raion of the Yakut ASSR. The language is genetically related to the Chukchi-Kamchatka group and consists of five dialects that differ only slightly: Uelen (the eastern dialect, on which the literary language is based), Chaun (western), Enmylin, Nunligran, and Khotyr’.

The phonetic system is characterized by vowel synharmony and a great variety of consonant assimilations and dissimilations. In its grammatical structure, Chukchi is a prefixal-suffixal agglutinative language. It has well-developed declension and conjugation systems. Nouns are inflected by person, and verbs have two types of conjugations: one subject and the other subject-object. A typical feature of the syntax is the presence of a nominative and an ergative construction, as well as incorporation. The vocabulary contains many borrowings from the Russian. A writing system based on the Latin alphabet was created in 1931. Since 1936 the Russian alphabet has been used.

REFERENCES

Skorik, P. Ia. Grammatika chukotskogo iazyka, part 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1961. Part 2: Leningrad, 1977.
Bogoraz, V. G. Luoravetlansko-russkii (chukotsko-russkii) slovar’. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937.
Bogoras, W. “Chukchee.” In F. Boas, Handbook of American Indian Languages, part 2. Washington, D.C., 1922.

I. A. MURAV’EVA


Chukchi

 

a people that constitutes the indigenous population of the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug (formerly Chukchi National Okrug), Magadan Oblast, RSFSR. Chukchi also live in the northern part of the Koriak Autonomous Okrug (formerly Kor-iak National Okrug) and Nizhnekolymsk Raion, Yakut ASSR.

Chukchi who raise reindeer on the interior tundra call themselves chavchu (“reindeer” Chukchi), as distinct from those who inhabit the coasts, who use the term an’kalyn (coast dweller). The general self-designation— luoravetlan (real person)—has not become established as the designation for the people as a whole. The Chukchi number 14,000 (1979 census). They speak mainly the Chukchi language. Their religion was shamanism and various cults centering on the family, hunting, and fishing.

The Chukchi first came into contact with Russians in 1642 on the Alazeia River, but they remained virtually independent from the tsarist administration until the 19th century. A natural barter economy was maintained between the nomadic reindeer-raising Chukchi and the settled maritime Chukchi, who hunted marine mammals. Under Soviet power, radical changes have taken place in the Chukchi way of life: reindeer raising has been reorganized, and large sovkhozes and kolkhozes have been established; modern technology has been introduced in the hunting of marine mammals. Educational materials and literature are now published in the Chukchi language.

REFERENCES

Narody Sibiri. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
Vdovin, I. S. Ocherki istorii i etnografii chukchei. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Gurvich, I. S. Etnicheskaia istoriia severo-vostoka Sibiri. Moscow, 1966.
Ocherki istorii Chukotki s drevneishikh vremen do nashikh dnei. Novosibirsk, 1974.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Russians might have abandoned the Chukchis, but they hadn't abandoned their dogs.
Rather than selecting for size and strength as the Inuit always had, the Chukchi dogs were chosen for obedience and endurance.
Only with the arrival of the Communist era did the Chukchi dogs' fortunes decline.
Most of the languages spoken in the eastern tundra belong to the Altaic or Chukchi families.
The other important linguistic family in the eastern Eurasian tundra is Chukchi, (or Chukchi-Kamchadal), which includes Chukchi (or Chikot), Koryak, and Kamchadale (or Itelmen).
After the Chukchi and the Nenets, the Evenki are the people of the Eurasian tundra with the most reindeer, but they move shorter distances than their western neighbors.
In the lower Kolyma, another mixed-race population, descended from Russian colonists and Yukaghir, occupies a small stretch of the riverbanks near the mouth, and they are known in the Chukchi Peninsula as Kolimchan and Markovets.
Finally, there is also the Chuvases, an ethnic group that formed at the end of the 19th century in the southern part of the Chukchi Peninsula, at the northeastern tip of Siberia.
This paper reports on acoustic detections of fin whales in the northeastern Chukchi Sea from July to October 2007-10, discussing them in relation to past occurrence of fin whales and increasing human activities in the Chukchi Sea.
The northeastern Chukchi Sea is the object of a long-term passive acoustic monitoring program aimed at measuring ambient noise and monitoring marine mammals and human activities in areas of interest for oil and gas development.
First possible fin whale detection date, or deployment date (Chukchi Sea: all call types: Bering Sea: triplet songs or units only), date of first and last detections, last possible detection date (recovery date), and number of detection days for all stations where fin whale calls were detected in the northeastern Chukchi Sea in summer 2007, 2009, and 2010 and in the Bering Sea between October 2007 and September 2009.
For the 2007 Chukchi Sea data set, the spectrogram correlation detection tool implemented in the software Ishmael (Mellinger, 2002) was used to automatically detect all fin whale calls, whether in irregular sequences or songs.