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ejection of food and other matter from the stomach through the mouth, often preceded by nauseanausea,
sensation of discomfort, or queasiness, in the stomach. It may be caused by irritation of the stomach by food or drugs, unpleasant odors, overeating, fright, or psychological stress. It is usually relieved by vomiting.
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. The process is initiated by stimulation of the vomiting center of the brain by nerve impulses from the gastrointestinal tract or other part of the body. The vomiting center then sends out nerve impulses that precipitate spasmodic muscular contractions of the stomach wall and downward spasms of the diaphragm. The pressure generated then forces up the contents of the stomach. The vomiting mechanism may be in response to local irritation (diseases or disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, overburdening of the capacity and digestive capabilities of the stomach, ingestion of harmful foods or substances) or result from a metabolic disturbance (as in pregnancy) or from disorders or stimulation of the nervous system (e.g., migraine, motion sickness, infectious disease, brain tumor or injury, disagreeable odors). Vomiting may also be a reflex action to other spasmodic conditions (whooping cough, gagging).



a complex reflex action, during which the stomach contents are involuntarily expulsed through the mouth as a result of the excitation of the vomiting center, located in the medulla oblongata.

During vomiting, the pylorus undergoes a spasm and the cardia of the stomach opens. As a result of antiperistaltic contractions, food travels from the stomach to the esophagus and is expulsed to the outside by the spasmodic and jerky contraction of the respiratory musculature and muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. At the same time, the larynx rises and the epiglottis falls, which causes the glottis to close, thus preventing the vomit from entering the respiratory tract. The vomit is hindered from entering the nasal cavity by the raised soft palate.

Vomiting may be provoked by irritants acting on gastric mucosa, by the direct effect of toxins on the vomiting center, and by the stimulation of receptors, for example, in diseases of the abdominal organs, the brain, and meninges. Psychogenic and conditioned-reflex vomiting is also possible.

Vomiting is generally a defensive act because it helps remove harmful substances from the stomach. However, frequent vomiting, for example, the indomitable vomiting that occurs during pyloristenosis, may result in dehydration and disturbances of mineral metabolism and acid-base equilibrium.

Vomiting is dangerous during alcoholic intoxication and coma and when a patient is recovering from general anesthesia; atony of the epiglottis and soft palate may permit vomit to enter the nasal cavity and upper respiratory tract, which can cause asphyxia.

Vomiting is a specific symptom of many pathological conditions in such animals as carnivores, omnivores, and ruminants.


References in periodicals archive ?
Chunder A, Devjee J, Khedun SM, Moodley J, Esterhuizen T.
I thought I'd better chunder in the toilet (rather) than all over the front row," he reportedly told the audience.
One can find fault with individual entries: for example, that on the Mahabharata lists only scholarly translations, leaving out popular English versions like those of Romesh Chunder Dutt (]abridged, in verse, 1899) or P.
BOY CHUNDER 3 Harry lets go at the back of the stage in Pittsburgh
The incident happened two hours into the first concert of an Australian tour and the singer reportedly told the audience: "I thought I'd better chunder in the toilet (rather) than all over the front row.
An imprudent remark by a politician--"all nurses do any way is empty chunder buckets"--was the catalyst for a "chunder bucket express", a bus that transported nurses from all over the state to a big protest meeting at Parliament House in Brisbane.
41) Protap Chunder Majumdar, "The World's Religious Debt to Asia," in Richard Hughes Seager, ed.
Interestingly, in Asia the first persons to reflect on who Jesus is from the perspective of Asia's religious traditions were not Christians but Indian Hindus such as Ram Mohun Roy (Jesus as Supreme Guide to happiness), Keshub Chunder Sen (Jesus as true Yogi), Swami Vive-kananda (Jesus as Jivanmukta, i.
CHUNDER THE INFLUENCE Youngster is left feeling sick
Kutch pieces marked OM are by the smith Oomersi Mawji, while names found on Calcutta silver include Goopee Nath Dutt, Chunder Dutt and Dass & Dutt.