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, city and independent municipality (2010 pop. 28,846,170), 592 sq mi (1,534 sq km), in SE Sichuan prov., China, at the junction of the Chang and Jialing rivers. It is administered directly by the national government.
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(also Ch’ungch’ing), a city in Southwest China, in Szechwan Province. Forms a series of terraces on the slope of a promontory at the confluence of the Chialing Chiang and the Yangtze River. Population, approximately 5 million (including rural areas under the city’s jurisdiction; 1974). Chungking is a river port that handles more than 6 million tons of freight annually. It is connected by water with Shanghai and by railroad with Paochi, in Shensi Province, and with the seaport of Chanchiang, in Kwangtung Province. The city has an airport. There is a bridge across the Yangtze at Chungking.
Chungking developed as a major industrial center during the Sino-Japanese War, when factories were evacuated to the city from the eastern regions between 1938 and 1945; since that time industry has undergone further development. Approximately 10 million tons of coal are mined annually in the Chungking area; the substantial electric power industry includes two fossil-fuel-fired steam power plants and a hydroelectric power system on the Lungch’i Ho.
In 1970, Chungking’s complex of integrated iron and steel plants produced 1.5 million tons of pig iron and 1.2 million tons of steel. The city’s diversified machine-building industry manufactures hydroturbines, equipment for the power-engineering industry, machine tools, pneumatic and drilling equipment, construction machinery, ships, bearings, agricultural machinery, and instruments. The chemical industry is represented by plants producing plastics, chemical fibers, toxic chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The building-materials industry is represented by cement factories. The city also has mills for the production of wool and silk fabrics, a meat-packing plant, a cannery, a butter factory, a tea factory, and flour mills.
I. M. FEDOROV
Chungking is first mentioned in the 11th century B.C., when Chiangchou, the capital of the kingdom of Pa (Pah), stood on the site of the modern city. In 316 B.C. the kingdom of Pa was incorporated into the Ch’in state, and Chiangchou became a district capital. In 1189 the city received its present name. Long a major commercial center of Southwest China, Chungking was opened to foreign trade in 1891, after which it was used by the capitalist nations as a base from which to penetrate the economy of Szechwan and neighboring provinces. From 1913 to 1929 the city was called Pahsien. In October 1938 the Japanese captured Hank’ou, where the nationalist government had been located since late 1937; from the fall of Hank’ou until early 1946, Chungking was the capital of China. The city was freed from Kuomintang rule by the People’s Liberation Army of China on Nov 30, 1949.