Cilicia


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Cilicia

(sĭlĭsh`ə), ancient region of SE Asia Minor, in present S Turkey, between the Mediterranean and the Taurus range. It included a high and barren plateau, Cilicia Trachia or Cilicia Tracheia, and a fertile plain, Cilicia Pedias. The area was under the domination of the Assyrian Empire before it became part of the Persian Empire. Greeks early settled on the coast, and Cilicia was hellenized to a great extent. In the Hellenistic period the region was disputed by the Seleucid kings of Syria and the Ptolemaic kings of Egypt. Tarsus and Seleucia (not to be confused with the port of Antioch) were the principal cities. They flourished after the region became part of the Roman Empire (a portion in 102 B.C., but most of it only after Pompey's campaign against the pirates there in 67 B.C.). Later Cilicia was included in the Byzantine Empire and in the 8th cent. was invaded by the Arabs. In 1080, Prince Reuben set up an Armenian state there, which became a kingdom in 1098 and is generally called Little Armenia. The Armenians cooperated with the rulers of the neighboring Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. They maintained their independence against the Turks until 1375, when the Mamluks conquered them. (For the later history of the region, see ArmeniaArmenia
, Armenian Hayastan, officially Republic of Armenia, republic (2005 est. pop. 2,983,000), 11,500 sq mi (29,785 sq km), in the S Caucasus. Armenia is bounded by Turkey on the west, Azerbaijan on the east (the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan is on its
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.) Cilicia is mentioned in the Bible (Acts 6.9; 21.39; 22.3; Gal. 1.21).

Bibliography

See T. S. Boase, ed., Cilician Kingdom of Armenia (1979).

Cilicia

 

(also Little Armenia), a mountainous region on the upper reaches of the Euphrates, Lycus, andHalys rivers. The formation of the Armenian people and the ancient Armenian language is linked with this territory, which was called the land of the Hayasa in Hittite sources.

It was in Cilicia that the first alliance of tribes headed by the Hays—a designation which is still used as the native name of the Armenian people—was formed. Cilicia became part of the Achaemenid state. Under Alexander the Great, Cilicia came under Macedonian rule, and from A . D. 322 it was an independent kingdom with its capital at Ani-Kamakh. At the end of the second century B. C., Cilicia became part of the realm of Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus, who erected 75 fortified castles in that region. After his death, Cilicia passed from one Roman ruler to another. Its administrative boundaries shifted constantly. Under the emperor Vespasian it became part of the Roman province of Cappadocia; under Diocletian at the end of the third century A. D. it was made into a separate province, and under Theodosius it was divided into two provinces.

REFERENCE

Ocherki istorii SSSR: Pervobytno-obshchinnyi stroi i drevneishie gosudarstva na territorii SSSR. Moscow, 1956.

A. I. BOLTUNOVA and G. KH. SARKISIAN


Cilicia

 

an ancient district in Asia Minor, in the southern part of modern central Turkey. The region was divided into two parts: Cilicia Trachea (the Taurus Mountains) and Cilicia Pedias (the territory adjoining the Mediterranean Sea). The name “Cilicia” is first encountered in Assyrian inscriptions (Hilakku) in the designation “Cilicia the Rugged.” In the second millennium B.C., Cilicia became part of the Hittite empire. From the 12th to sixth centuries B.C., one or more independent kingdoms existed in Cilicia. In the sixth century B.C., the district became part of the Persian Empire of the Achaemenidae. In 333 B.C., Alexander the Macedonian conquered Cilicia. From 297 to 190, the region was under the dominion of the Seleucids. In 102, Cilicia was conquered by Rome, and it was finally pacified in 67 B.C. Around A.D. 200, Cilicia was divided into two provinces: Cilicia I and Cilicia II. In the Middle Ages, Byzantium, the Arabs, and the Seljuks struggled over the district. From 1080 to 1375, the Cilician Armenian state ruled by the Rubenid dynasty existed in the district, until it was seized by the Mamelukes. In 1515 the Turks conquered Cilicia.

References in periodicals archive ?
This region is part of the historic [Armenian Kingdom of] Cilicia, and Armenians have lived there since the middle ages.
In a message delivered to Iranian Ambassador to Lebanon Qazanfar Roknabadi, the head of the Holy Sea of Cilicia of the Armenian Apostolic Church described the high turnout of the Iranian nation in the election as a unique event in the world.
Aram I, present Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia, provides for the first time an English translation of this correspondence of Nerses.
In the Church's long history there have been many influential converts, men and women whose conversion strengthened, perhaps even shaped, the Church, but none with such lasting impact as a first century tentmaker from the Turkish city of Tarsus ("no mean city", he would later say), capital of the Roman province of Cilicia.
Al-Mulaifi made the statement to the press last night after patronizing the "Golden Jubilee - 50 years" celebration of the establishment of the Armenian school in Kuwait, held in Kuwait University auditorium with the attendance of former Head of the World Churches Council and Catholics of the Armenian Orthodox Church of Cilicia in Lebanon Aram I Kachichian and a number of ambassadors, and Ministry of Education officials.
They were brought before the governor of Cilicia, then tortured and beheaded in Cyrrhus, north of Antioch, in Syria.
Since the days when Mark Antony's grandfather patrolled the coasts of the Mediterranean searching for the distinctive gilded-stemmed masts of their lightweight vessels, pirates from Cilicia (modern-day Cukorova, Turkey) had vexed Roman shipping lanes.
The House President will also be received by the Patriarch - Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia Aram A', who will honor Garoyian with the Order of the Knight of Cilicia, and will host a lunch in his honor.
5) The word aoXoiKiZovxsq, meaning "to speak incorrectly"--the origin of our English word "solecism"--is named after the Soloi of Cilicia who spoke a corrupt dialect of Attic (cf.
As Eastmond demonstrates, the emperors of Byzantium, the Latin emperors of Constantinople, and the rulers of Georgia, Seljuk Rum, Cilicia, Serbia, and Bulgaria were all considered members of the audience for the constructions, ceremonies, and commissions of the emperors of Trebizond.
He stayed at the Catholicosate, or religious compound, of the Great House of Cilicia in a suburb of Beirut, traveled in the Middle East, and met many Armenian Orthodox.
But another momentous day for the archbishop and his prelacy will come Saturday, when His Holiness Aram I, Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia, will bless the under-construction facility as part of a Southern California visit.