Cilicia

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Cilicia

(sĭlĭsh`ə), ancient region of SE Asia Minor, in present S Turkey, between the Mediterranean and the Taurus range. It included a high and barren plateau, Cilicia Trachia or Cilicia Tracheia, and a fertile plain, Cilicia Pedias. The area was under the domination of the Assyrian Empire before it became part of the Persian Empire. Greeks early settled on the coast, and Cilicia was hellenized to a great extent. In the Hellenistic period the region was disputed by the Seleucid kings of Syria and the Ptolemaic kings of Egypt. Tarsus and Seleucia (not to be confused with the port of Antioch) were the principal cities. They flourished after the region became part of the Roman Empire (a portion in 102 B.C., but most of it only after Pompey's campaign against the pirates there in 67 B.C.). Later Cilicia was included in the Byzantine Empire and in the 8th cent. was invaded by the Arabs. In 1080, Prince Reuben set up an Armenian state there, which became a kingdom in 1098 and is generally called Little Armenia. The Armenians cooperated with the rulers of the neighboring Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. They maintained their independence against the Turks until 1375, when the Mamluks conquered them. (For the later history of the region, see ArmeniaArmenia
, Armenian Hayastan, officially Republic of Armenia, republic (2005 est. pop. 2,983,000), 11,500 sq mi (29,785 sq km), in the S Caucasus. Armenia is bounded by Turkey on the west, Azerbaijan on the east (the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan is on its
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.) Cilicia is mentioned in the Bible (Acts 6.9; 21.39; 22.3; Gal. 1.21).

Bibliography

See T. S. Boase, ed., Cilician Kingdom of Armenia (1979).

Cilicia

 

(also Little Armenia), a mountainous region on the upper reaches of the Euphrates, Lycus, andHalys rivers. The formation of the Armenian people and the ancient Armenian language is linked with this territory, which was called the land of the Hayasa in Hittite sources.

It was in Cilicia that the first alliance of tribes headed by the Hays—a designation which is still used as the native name of the Armenian people—was formed. Cilicia became part of the Achaemenid state. Under Alexander the Great, Cilicia came under Macedonian rule, and from A . D. 322 it was an independent kingdom with its capital at Ani-Kamakh. At the end of the second century B. C., Cilicia became part of the realm of Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus, who erected 75 fortified castles in that region. After his death, Cilicia passed from one Roman ruler to another. Its administrative boundaries shifted constantly. Under the emperor Vespasian it became part of the Roman province of Cappadocia; under Diocletian at the end of the third century A. D. it was made into a separate province, and under Theodosius it was divided into two provinces.

REFERENCE

Ocherki istorii SSSR: Pervobytno-obshchinnyi stroi i drevneishie gosudarstva na territorii SSSR. Moscow, 1956.

A. I. BOLTUNOVA and G. KH. SARKISIAN


Cilicia

 

an ancient district in Asia Minor, in the southern part of modern central Turkey. The region was divided into two parts: Cilicia Trachea (the Taurus Mountains) and Cilicia Pedias (the territory adjoining the Mediterranean Sea). The name “Cilicia” is first encountered in Assyrian inscriptions (Hilakku) in the designation “Cilicia the Rugged.” In the second millennium B.C., Cilicia became part of the Hittite empire. From the 12th to sixth centuries B.C., one or more independent kingdoms existed in Cilicia. In the sixth century B.C., the district became part of the Persian Empire of the Achaemenidae. In 333 B.C., Alexander the Macedonian conquered Cilicia. From 297 to 190, the region was under the dominion of the Seleucids. In 102, Cilicia was conquered by Rome, and it was finally pacified in 67 B.C. Around A.D. 200, Cilicia was divided into two provinces: Cilicia I and Cilicia II. In the Middle Ages, Byzantium, the Arabs, and the Seljuks struggled over the district. From 1080 to 1375, the Cilician Armenian state ruled by the Rubenid dynasty existed in the district, until it was seized by the Mamelukes. In 1515 the Turks conquered Cilicia.

References in periodicals archive ?
Pompeius Magnus, as he was afterwards styled, would go on to conquer the Levant and to challenge Julius Caesar for supremacy over the fledgling Roman Empire, but his lightning-swift campaign against the Cilician pirates was perhaps his finest moment.
This will not surprise if we recognize her announcement "I am again for Cydnus" (228) as an allusion to two great changes: to a historical meeting with Antony on the Cilician river and to the birth, thirty years later in its riparian city of Tarsus, of the Saul who will convert to Paul.
28, 144), or published fully Kuh-e Khwaja or his Cilician campaign (pp.
Sam Fogg is known for fine manuscripts, and this show is no exception: there is a fifteenth-century Gospel book by the scribe and painter Ghazar, which has inserted within it four parchment leaves from Cilician Gospel books of the twelfth century.
The Cilician kingdom, it should be noted, produced a high quality of art, architecture, and literature.
Virtually as old as the Gospels, the Church of Antioch was the vital centre and point of reference of the early communities of believers including Syrian, Phoenician, Arabic, Cilician and Mesopotamian--who were witnesses of the sacking of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 A.
Speakers of Cilician Arabic in Turkey normally insert only Turkish word stems and very rarely case-marked nouns.
Following the Seljuk invasion of Greater Armenia, Armenians emigrated to the south-west where they founded the Cilician Armenian kingdom.
As is commonly known, these relations were frequently motivated by political considerations: the kings and political authorities of Cilician Armenia, for example, encouraged an ecclesiastical rapprochement with the West, in the hope and expectation that Western principalities would thereby extend assistance to support the Armenian kingdom of Cilicia.
Merian treat, respectively, Cilician illumination (twelfth to fourteenth centuries), illumination under Georgian, Turkish, and Mongol rule (thirteenth to fifteenth centuries), and illumination and binding plaques of the diaspora.
Ironically, too, other sources of water for Israel and its Palestinian and Arab partners, the Seyhan and Ceyhan rivers, flow through the Cilician plain, which, though outside Turkish Kurdistan, became more heavily populated with Kurds in the 1980s and 1990s, a result of the ethnic cleansing carried out by the Turkish government in efforts to destroy the PKK resistance.
Hundreds of ancient ruins have been found in Mersin in the last 10 years, including one of the most important treasures of Cilician history, the ancient city of Soli Pompeiopolis.