Venezuela Claims

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Venezuela Claims.

In 1902, due to civil strife and to gross mismanagement during the administration of Cipriano CastroCastro, Cipriano
, 1858?–1924, president of Venezuela (1901–8). In 1899 he usurped the government, overthrowing Andrade. Called the Lion of the Andes by his followers, he was a stern and arbitrary caudillo, who nevertheless improved the country's economy.
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, Venezuelan finances were chaotic. Great Britain, Germany, and Italy were determined to seek redress for unpaid loans and sent a joint naval expedition to the Venezuelan coast; seaports were blockaded and shelled by German and British vessels, and Venezuelan gunboats were captured. The matter was embarrassing to the United States because of the Monroe DoctrineMonroe Doctrine,
principle of American foreign policy enunciated in President James Monroe's message to Congress, Dec. 2, 1823. It initially called for an end to European intervention in the Americas, but it was later extended to justify U.S.
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. The powers, taking a conciliatory step, disclaimed territorial ambitions. Germany in particular had already brought its claims to U.S. attention. Theodore Roosevelt refused a request to act as arbitrator, but the United States worked toward an amicable settlement.

The claims were adjusted at Caracas in 1903, but further complications arose as to whether Venezuela should pay off the debts owed to the blockading powers before settling the claims of neutral nations; in 1904 the Hague Tribunal decided in favor of the blockading powers. The dispute became significant in international law because the scope of the Monroe Doctrine was not extended to include such cases as this; further, the heated resentment of other Spanish-American nations over violation of the sovereignty of one of them resulted in the Drago Doctrine (see under Drago, Luis MaríaDrago, Luis María
, 1859–1921, Argentine statesman, jurist, and writer on international law. As minister of foreign affairs under Julio A. Roca, he dispatched (Dec.
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).

References in periodicals archive ?
Then, they also blocked us in 1902 with the government of President Cipriano Castro, and we already know the history of Cuba with more than half a century of blockade and there is with his head high 90 miles from the empire and the blockade of a United States to Zimbabwe is unacceptable, but Cuba and Zimbabwe under the leadership of Comrade Robert Mugabe is exemplary.
The attack forced Jimenez's vehicle to crash into the concrete barriers of the De Venecia road and overturn, but its passenger, Cipriano Castro, survived.
No obstante, al entrar el siglo xx, nuevas figuras coparan los espacio de poder politico, primero Cipriano Castro quien asciende tras la revolucion liberal restauradora de 1899 y seguidamente Juan Vicente Gomez, quien derroca a Castro en una memorable traicion escenificada en 1908, con Gomez en el solio presidencial, se iniciaria una politica vial significativa, comenzando con el decreto del 24 de junio de 1910, justo cuando se cumplian cien anos del inicio de la lucha emancipadora en Venezuela.
Los anos del mandato del general Cipriano Castro, que personifica la llamada Restauracion Liberal, constituyen el periodo de transicion en el proceso de conformacion de un Estado nacional de estructura moderna.
O primeiro descreve o bloqueio naval imposto a Venezuela com o objetivo de cobrar a divida cujo pagamento havia sido suspenso pelo presidente venezuelano Cipriano Castro.
De este modo, se incluyo en el texto constitucional el despojo realizado por Cipriano Castro en 1904.
Durante los primeros anos de 1900, Venezuela seria victima de cruentas guerras civiles y del bloqueo arbitrario de los principales puertos de la nacion por parte de los intereses inescrupulosos de las potencias europeas (Inglaterra, Alemania, Italia, entre otras), excusa que Cipriano Castro utilizaria habilmente para enarbolar la bandera del patriotismo, mas como instrumento politico para afianzarse en el poder, al sentenciar "
Asi, "Venezuela, politica y petroleo", la gruesa obra, a un tiempo documentada y manipuladora, en la que no escasean las medias verdades y las mentiras, que escribio para defender su gobierno, haciendolo pasar por revolucionario, patriotico y nacionalista-ubicandolo dentro de un amplio marco historico que iba desde el triunfo de Cipriano Castro hasta la dictadura de Perez Jimenez-, se convirtio por facilismo, por complicidad o por complacencia, en referencia obligada casi exclusiva de los historiadores venezolanos para estudiar esos tres anos de gobierno.
Con la llegada de Cipriano Castro al poder, comenzo un largo proceso caracterizado por la presencia de los andinos al frente de la cosa publica.
The Los Angeles Times reported on the acquisition of Louis Castro and printed a photo highlighting the alleged connections of the ballplayer to Cipriano Castro, the president of Venezuela.
La Revolucion Restauradora Liberal, dirigida por Cipriano Castro y Juan Vicente Gomez (1899-1903), tuvo como objetivo eliminar las condiciones objetivas y subjetivas del fenomeno caudillista que habia convertido a Venezuela en un pais ingobernable.
Tras las divisiones politico-territoriales ocurridas en los diferentes gobiernos y las segregaciones registradas en los mandatos de Jose Tadeo Monagas de La Ceiba y La Ceibita a Trujillo y del Corredor de Palmarito a Merida con Cipriano Castro, desde el Concejo Municipal de Sucre se tomaron decisiones que afectaron los limites de los municipios Bobures, Gibraltar, Heras y General Urdaneta (1).