Circassia


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Related to Circassia: Circassian, Caucasus, Chechnya

Circassia

(sərkăsh`ēə), historic region, encompassing roughly the area between the Black Sea, the Kuban River, and the Caucasus, now largely the Krasnodar TerritoryKrasnodar Territory,
administrative division (1995 pop. 5,004,200), 32,317 sq mi (83,701 sq km), SE European Russia, extending E from the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea into the Kuban steppe and straddling the northwestern end of the Greater Caucasus. Krasnodar is the capital.
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 of SE European Russia. The Circassians are a Muslim people, whose Russian name is Cherkess and whose native name is Adygey. They are now officially classified in Russia as three peoples: the Kabards, in the Kabardino-Balkar RepublicKabardino-Balkar Republic
or Kabardino-Balkaria,
constituent republic (1990 est. pop. 760,000), c.4,800 sq mi (12,400 sq km), SE European Russia, in the northern part of the Caucasus Mts. Nalchik is the capital.
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; the Circassians or Cherkess, in the Karachay-Cherkess RepublicKarachay-Cherkess Republic
, constituent republic (1990 est. pop. 420,000), c.5,500 sq mi (14,200 sq km), Stavropol Territory, SE European Russia, in the Greater Caucasus, along the upper Kuban River. Cherkessk is the capital.
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; and the Adygey, in the Adygey RepublicAdygey Republic
or Adygeya,
formerly Adyge Autonomous Region,
constituent republic (1990 est. pop. 435,000), c.2,935 sq mi (7,600 sq km), an enclave within Krasnodar Territory, SE European Russia, at the northern foothills of the Greater Caucasus.
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. The term Circassian has sometimes been incorrectly applied to all the mountain peoples of the N Caucasus.

Known in antiquity, they inhabited the western side of the Caucasus and the Crimea and were known to the Greeks as the Zyukhoy. They were Christianized in the 6th cent. A.D. but adopted Islam in the 17th cent. after coming under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. In 1829 the Ottoman Turks were forced to cede Circassia to Russia. At this time the Circassians occupied almost the entire area between the main Caucasian range, the Kuban River, and the Black Sea. In the many Russo-Turkish wars in the first half of the 19th cent., the Circassians bitterly fought the Russians. After the Russian conquest of the area, hundreds of thousands of Circassians were deported or fled to Turkey (1861–64). Circassian women were reputed to be great beauties, and many were sold into slavery in Turkey. The vast majority of Circassians now live in Turkey. In addition to the Turkish and Russian Circassians, there are smaller populations in Syria, Jordan, Germany, and elsewhere.

Circassia

a region of S Russia, on the Black Sea north of the Caucasus Mountains
References in periodicals archive ?
Steve Harris, Circassia s Chief Executive, said: Achieving this positive outcome is a major milestone for Circassia, marking the favourable conclusion of the Company s first ever Marketing Authorisation Application for a product using its particle-engineering technology.
The opportunity to address--both in positive and negative approaches--the hosting of the 2014 Olympics in Sochi, the last capital of Circassia, on the 150th anniversary of the Circassian Genocide, created new possibilities for the Circassian movement.
Letters partly visible on the bow confirm Circassia, said liner expert Christy McHale, and Brian Church, of Southport.
The daughter of Roan Rocket had been sold as a foal for 4,600gns by her breeder Lady Wyfold and hailed from a family associated for many years with Wyfold's Sarsden House Stud in Oxfordshire; her dam, Nasira (by Persian Gulf), was a winning daughter of Circassia, a half-sister to the Wyfold-bred 1951 1,000 Guineas winner Zabara and ancestress of Group 1 winners Don't Forget Me, Desert King, Dim Sum and Maroof.
The Scots had little time to make their decision; they would leave on the Anchor Line's ship Circassia the following Thursday morning.
However I am interested in her, because my friend, the Pasha's daughter, tells me she was bought as a slave in Circassia.
When I started there were still lovely liners like Circassia and Cilicia on the India run, Apapa and Aureol for West Africa," he recalls.
It is sometimes called Circassian walnut after the province Circassia in the Caucasus mountains.
A second and more compact machine was built and fitted to the steamship Circassia.
The Muslim man recalls that the sultan himself once extinguished fighting in his ranks by making beautiful newly arrived women refugees from Circassia take the veil.
Her longest works include "The Vision of Schwartz," about a twelfth-century monk's search for the philosopher's stone, and the subject of this essay, The Star of Atteghei, a tragic romance set in nineteenth-century Circassia.
He used various pseudonyms for her in the poems he wrote for her, mainly Celia but also Circassia (Williams 128) and Phillida.