civilization

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Related to Civilizations: Ancient civilizations

civilization,

culture with a relatively high degree of elaboration and technical development. The term civilization also designates that complex of cultural elements that first appeared in human history between 8,000 and 6,000 years ago. At that time, on the basis of agriculture, stock-raising, and metallurgy, intensive occupational specialization began to appear in the river valleys of SW Asia. Writing appeared, as well as urban centers that accommodated administrators, traders, and other specialists. The specific characteristics of civilization are: food production (plant and animal domestication), metallurgy, a high degree of occupational specialization, writing, and the growth of cities. Such characteristics originally emerged in several different parts of the prehistoric world: Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, India, the central Andes, and Mesoamerica. However, some civilizations did not have all of these characteristics (e.g., the Classic Maya had no metallurgy, and true writing apparently never emerged in central Mexico or the central Andes). Many anthropologists now focus on a political factor—the development of hierarchical administrative bureaucracies—as the critical characteristic of all civilizations.

Bibliography

See P. Sorokin, Social and Cultural Dynamics (1981); R. Wothnaw, Meaning and Moral Order (1987); F. Fernández-Armesto, Civilizations: Culture, Ambition, and the Transformation of Nature (2001).

civilization

  1. the advanced cultural forms (e.g. central government, development of the arts and learning, articulated concern with morals and manners) associated with cities and the wider societies in which these are located. The term derives from the Latin civis, citizen.
  2. a particular society or culture area possessing the above characteristics (e.g. ‘Chinese civilization’ or ‘Western civilization’).
Historically, use of the term was often strongly, and somewhat crudely, evaluative, e.g. the contrast with pre-existing stages such as SAVAGERY or BARBARISM. See also CIVILIZING PROCESS.

Civilization

 

(1) A synonym for culture. In Marxist literature the word is also used to designate material culture.

(2) A level or stage of social development or material and nonmaterial culture, for example, ancient civilization and modern civilization.

(3) The stage of social development that follows barbarism (L. Morgan, F. Engels).

The concept of civilization originated in the 18th century along with the concept of culture. The French Enlightenment philosophers applied the term to a society based on the principles of reason and justice. In the 19th century the concept of civilization was used to a limited extent to characterize capitalism as a whole. Thus, N. Ia. Danilevskii formulated the theory of the general typology of cultures, or civilizations, in accordance with which universal history does not exist, but only the history of given civilizations having an individual, closed character. In the conception of O. Spengler, civilization is the distinct, final stage of development of any culture. Its primary signs are the development of industry and technology, the degradation of art and literature, the concentration of people in big cities, and the transformation of the people into faceless “masses.” In this interpretation, civilization as an age of decline is contrasted to the integrity and organicism of culture. These and other idealist concepts explain neither the nature of civilization nor the true essence of its development. The classics of Marxism analyzed the driving forces and contradictions of the development of civilization, substantiating the necessity of the revolutionary transition to its new phase—the communist society.

REFERENCES

Marx, K. “Konspekt knigi L’iuisa G. Morgana ’Drevnee obshchestvo.’” In Arkhiv K. Marksai F. Engel’sa, vol. 9. Moscow, 1941.
Engels, F. Proiskhozhdenie sem’i chastnoi sobstvennosti i gosudarstva. In K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 21.
Morgan, L. Drevnee obshchestvo, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1935. (Translated from English.)
Markarian, E. S. O kontsepisiilokal’nykh tsivilizatsii. Yerevan, 1962.
Artanovskii, S. N. Istoricheskoe edinstvo chelovechestva i vzaimnoe vliianie kul’tur: Filosofsko-metodologicheskii analiz sovremennykh zarubezhnykh kontseptsii. Leningrad, 1967.
Emge, K. A. Die Frage nach einem neuen Kulturbegriff. Mainz, 1963.
References in classic literature ?
One of the greatest gifts of Christianity, it should be observed, and one of the most important influences in medieval civilization, was the network of monasteries which were now gradually established and became centers of active hospitality and the chief homes of such learning as was possible to the time.
Danes' the whole northeastern half of the island obtained for the remainder the peace which was the first essential for the reestablishment of civilization.
It is nothing less than the high-speed tool of civilization, gearing up the whole mechanism to more effective social service.
Civilization VI: Rise and Fall also adds nine new leaders and eight new civilizations, including returning fan favorites Shaka leading the Zulu and Genghis Khan leading Mongolia, alongside newcomers in a Civilization game for the first time such as Queen Seondeok leading Korea and Robert the Bruce leading Scotland.
Civilization's structures do not suppose a pure language structure rather civilizations have a synthesized language on the basis of Macro-Culture.
The Qatari Committee for the Alliance of Civilization was established in 2010 and developed the State of Qatar Plan of the Alliance of Civilizations 2014-2016, derived from the Qatar National Vision 2030, which gave great attention to the dialogue of civilisations and issues of interaction, in addition to interaction with other societies.
He said that in fact our young generation has showing no interest to know about the history of ancient civilization of MohenjoDaro, Herpa and Texalla while in India full attention is being given to tell the young people about their ancient civilizations.
By: Noha El Tawil CAIRO -- 6 November 2017: Panel speakers debated in the first session of the World Youth Forum (WYF) the validity of Samuel Huntington's Clash of Civilizations theory.
Ibrahim Al-Jaafari said in a speech he delivered during the ancient civilizations forum in Athens, that Iraq is the first civilization in the world, and it is seven thousand years from now was the birth of the civilization in the world, it was in the Mesopotamia of southern Iraq from Omara, Nasiriya and Al-Basra and other regions.
ISLAMABAD -- Minister for Information, Broadcasting and National Heritage, Senator Pervaiz Rashid Wednesday said that the nations who had strong attachment with their civilizations could progress only.
Nation states will remain the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principal conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations.
Critique: A novel and effective way to for students and non-specialist general readers with an interest in how civilizations were stimulated to evolve in response to traumatic, unexpected, and often horrific disasters, "A History of Civilization in 50 Disasters" is a compelling read that is as informed and informative as it is thoughtful and thought-provoking.