If we persist in continuously adding more and more greenhouse gas to the atmosphere, we will, at some point, reach Arctic temperatures that will cause thousands of square miles of permafrost and shallow clathrates
We didn't expect that our study of clathrates
in the Enceladus ocean would lead us to the idea that methane is actively being produced by hydrothermal processes," said lead author Alexis Bouquet, a graduate student at the University of Texas at San Antonio.
dissociation] of the simple hydrate of the mixture component, the higher its concentration in the clathrate
A wide variety of small molecules form clathrates
, while others, such as methanol, disrupt the formation of these compounds by shifting the hydrate equilibrium so that they form only under more severe conditions.
are found in the frigid depths of Earth's oceans, and some scientists think there could be an ocean of liquid water mixed with ammonia (acting as antifreeze) beneath Titan's water-ice crust.
are stabilized by the weak attractive interactions between guest and water molecules.
Second, Linus Pauling's proposal of clathrates
has received new impetus, in the light of recent work showing the importance of 'structured water' in cell biology.
Similar methods are being applied in the US to assess the huge deposits of methane trapped in frozen water sheets, called clathrates
, which look like ice lying on deep sea beds around the Earth's coastal regions.
2] to the seafloor, where solid clathrates
are stable at the ambient pressure and temperature conditions.
Work in this area is being pursued by Brian Wagner, MCIC at UPEI who is looking at host--guest chemistry of cyclodextrins, Mary Anne White who is looking at thermal properties of clathrates
and other framework materials (see Figure 3), and Norm Schepp, MCIC at Dalhousie whose research interests are focused on developing novel peptide-based catalysts.
For instance, bacteria may well thrive on the surface of the clathrates
, taking advantage of a gradient in methane concentrations.
Wuwei Liang from SwRI's Materials Engineering Department are the team for the project, "Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Clathrates
for Anode Applications in Lithium-Ion Batteries.