Claudius I


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Claudius I

(Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus) (klôd`ēəs), 10 B.C.–A.D. 54, Roman emperor (A.D. 41–A.D. 54), son of Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus and thus nephew of TiberiusTiberius
(Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus) , 42 B.C.–A.D. 37, second Roman emperor (A.D. 14–A.D. 37). He was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla and was originally named Tiberius Claudius Nero. He campaigned (20 B.C.) in Armenia, became (19 B.C.
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. When CaligulaCaligula
, A.D. 12–A.D. 41, Roman emperor (A.D. 37–A.D. 41); son of Germanicus Caesar and Agrippina the Elder. His real name was Caius Caesar Germanicus. As a small child, he wore military boots, whence his nickname [caligula=little boot].
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 was murdered (A.D. 41), the soldiers found Claudius, who had been of little importance, hiding in abject terror behind a curtain in the palace. They hauled him forth, and the Praetorians proclaimed him emperor. This act offended the senators, who never forgave Claudius. It also made him favor the army. He annexed Mauretania and landed in A.D. 43 in Britain, which he made a province. Agrippa's kingdom of Judaea and the kingdom of Thrace were reabsorbed into the empire, and the authority of the provincial procurators was extended. He caused MessalinaMessalina
(Valeria Messalina) , d. A.D. 48, Roman empress, wife of Claudius I. She was the mother of his children, Britannicus and Octavia. Her reputation for greed and lust was supposedly unknown to her husband until, in Claudius' absence, she publicly married her lover Caius
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, his third wife, to be executed and was in turn supposedly poisoned by her successor, Agrippina the YoungerAgrippina the Younger,
d. A.D. 59, Roman matron; daughter of Germanicus Caesar and Agrippina the Elder. By her first husband, Cneius Domitius Ahenobarbus, she was the mother of Nero.
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, after she had persuaded him to pass over his son BritannicusBritannicus
(Claudius Tiberius Germanicus Britannicus) , A.D. 41?–A.D. 55, Roman prince, son of Claudius I and Messalina, so called in honor of Claudius' conquests in Britain.
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 as heir in favor of NeroNero
(Nero Claudius Caesar) , A.D. 37–A.D. 68, Roman emperor (A.D. 54–A.D. 68). He was originally named Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus and was the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul in A.D.
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, her son by a former husband. Claudius was much reviled by his enemies and historians have accused him of being only a tool in the hands of his freedmen-secretaries and his wives; there are indications, however, that he had considerable administrative ability. Claudius' literary works are lost. He is the chief figure in two novels by Robert Graves, I, Claudius (1934) and Claudius the God (1935).

Bibliography

See studies by A. Momigliano (tr. 1962) and V. M. Scramuzza (1940).

References in periodicals archive ?
Hamlet refrains from killing Claudius in the belief that the kneeling Claudius is repenting, whereas Claudius's attempt to repent is unsuccessful (3.
To Hamlet Claudius is not "he that hath killed my father" but "He that hath kill'd my king" (5.