Clayton-Bulwer Treaty


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Clayton-Bulwer Treaty,

concluded (Apr. 19, 1850) at Washington, D.C., between the United States, represented by Secretary of State John M. Clayton, and Great Britain, represented by the British plenipotentiary Sir Henry Bulwer. American and British rivalries in Central America, particularly over a proposed isthmian canal, led to the treaty. Its most important article provided "that neither … will ever obtain or maintain for itself any exclusive control over the said ship canal … that neither will ever erect or maintain any fortifications commanding the same … or occupy, or fortify, or colonize or assume, or exercise any dominion over Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Mosquito coast [in present-day Honduras and Nicaragua], or any part of Central America."

Although the treaty was soon ratified by the Senate, it was one of the most unpopular in U.S. history, viewed by some as a betrayal of the Monroe DoctrineMonroe Doctrine,
principle of American foreign policy enunciated in President James Monroe's message to Congress, Dec. 2, 1823. It initially called for an end to European intervention in the Americas, but it was later extended to justify U.S.
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. Successive secretaries of state tried in vain to secure modifications that would enable the United States to build its own canal and exercise, under restrictions, political control over it, but it was not until 1901, with the Hay-Pauncefote TreatiesHay-Pauncefote Treaties
, negotiated in 1899 and 1901 by Secretary of State John Hay, for the United States, and Lord Pauncefote of Preston, British ambassador to the United States, for Great Britain, with the object of modifying the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, concerning the
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, that this end was finally achieved.

Bibliography

See M. W. Williams, Anglo-American Isthmian Diplomacy, 1815–1915 (1916, repr. 1965).

References in periodicals archive ?
was the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty signed concerning the |construction of an interoceanic canal across Central America?
The agreement was to supersede the earlier Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 which had provided for a joint protectorate by England and the US of any "trans-isthmian canal" between the two oceans.
Signed by the United States and Great Britain on April 19, 1850, the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty stipulated that neither nation would exclusively control any trans-oceanic canal built in the region.
The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty restrictions and unwanted British involvement in construction remained.
WHEN was the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty signed concerning the construction of an interoceanic canal across Central America?