Clearchus


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Clearchus

(klēär`kəs), d. 401 B.C., Spartan officer, celebrated as the leader of the Ten Thousand. Sent in 410 to govern Byzantium, he made himself unpopular by his harsh discipline, and Alcibiades took the city in 408 B.C. Clearchus later returned and made himself virtual ruler, thereby incurring the anger of the Spartans, who forced him to leave (403). He sought refuge with Cyrus the Younger of Persia, who used him to recruit and later command the Greek mercenary force in support of Cyrus' claim to the throne. At CunaxaCunaxa
, ancient town of Babylonia, near the Euphrates River, NE of Ctesiphon. It was the scene of a battle (401 B.C.) between Cyrus the Younger and Artaxerxes II, described by Xenophon in the Anabasis.
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, Clearchus fought boldly, but Cyrus' forces were defeated. After the battle he led the Greek force (the Ten Thousand) in retreat, but was lured into a conference by TissaphernesTissaphernes
, d. 395 B.C., Persian satrap of coastal Asia Minor (c.413–395 B.C.). He was encouraged by Alcibiades (412) to intervene in the Peloponnesian War in support of Sparta.
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 and treacherously murdered. The story of the retreat was made famous by XenophonXenophon
, c.430 B.C.–c.355 B.C., Greek historian, b. Athens. He was one of the well-to-do young disciples of Socrates before leaving Athens to join the Greek force (the Ten Thousand) that was in the service of Cyrus the Younger of Persia.
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References in periodicals archive ?
On the most general level, just as the Greek mercenaries in Xenophon's account are mustered through the machinations of Cyrus and Clearchus in Asia Minor with no clear sense of their ultimate destination--Babylon, where the king is--Callirhoe is brought to Ionia, unaware that she too will eventually face the king in Babylon.
She is firmly loyal to Dionysius and, in fact, working as his agent to deliver the unwilling Callirhoe to his bed, just as Clearchus was from the very first aiding Cyrus' plan to attack the king by bringing an unwilling mercenary force east.
Dionysius and Cyrus must be seen as kind so that Callirhoe will see her new master as a possible love interest and the mercenaries will continue to be willing to serve Cyrus; but the victims of the deception must believe that the two men can actually be cruel enough to take the lives of Plangon and Clearchus so that an intervention by the object of the subterfuge is necessary to save them.
As Cyrus, Clearchus, and Menon start the Greeks on their journey and take them further and further eastward, moving them by various means after interruptions in their journey, so too Callirhoe is taken by Theron and Dionysius and Plangon.
Thomas Braun ("Dangerous Liaisons") gives a nice portrait of both the Spartan mercenary warlord Clearchus and the Persian Prince Cyrus.
In describing the superior leadership of Clearchus, Xenophon noted.
when, according to Clearchus, a disciple of Aristotle, as quoted by Josephus in his essay Against Apion (1.