Cleveland, Barbara Villiers, duchess of

Cleveland, Barbara Villiers, duchess of

(vĭl`ərz, vĭl`yərz), 1641–1709, mistress of King Charles II of England. She became Charles's mistress at Breda in 1660 and returned with him to England at the Restoration. The king made her husband, Roger Palmer, earl of Castlemaine. As Lady Castlemaine, Barbara Villiers was the archenemy of the earl of Clarendon, the lord chancellor, and her glee at his downfall (1667) is recorded in PepysPepys, Samuel
, 1633–1703, English public official, and celebrated diarist, b. London, grad. Magdalene College, Cambridge, 1653. In 1656 he entered the service of a relative, Sir Edward Montagu (later earl of Sandwich), whose secretary he became in 1660.
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' diary. She was made duchess in 1670, but by 1671 had been supplanted in Charles's affections by Louise de Kéroualle (the future duchess of Portsmouth). She bore the king several children.

Bibliography

See biography by A. Andrews (1970).

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