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Cleveland Orchestra,one of the foremost orchestras in the United States. It gave its first performance in 1918 under Nikolai SokoloffSokoloff, Nicolai
, 1886–1965, American conductor and violinist, b. near Kiev, Russia. After studying at Yale and under Charles Martin Loeffler, he toured France and England as a violinist.
..... Click the link for more information. , who was conductor until 1933. In 1931, the orchestra moved from the Cleveland Masonic Temple into the Georgian-style Severance Hall, located in Cleveland's University Circle area. (The hall was restored and renovated in 1999 and reopened in 2000.) Since 1968, the orchestra has also performed at the Blossom Music Center just S of the city. Sokoloff was succeeded as conductor by Artur Rodzinski (1933–43) and Erich LeinsdorfLeinsdorf, Erich
, 1912–93, American conductor, b. Vienna. Leinsdorf studied at the Vienna state academy of music and in 1934 began his conducting career, serving as assistant to Bruno Walter and then to Toscanini at the Salzburg festival.
..... Click the link for more information. (1943–46), and the orchestra achieved renown under the direction of George SzellSzell, George
, 1897–1970, American conductor and pianist, b. Budapest. He moved with his family to Vienna during his childhood and started his piano training at an early age studying at the State Academy of Music in Vienna and in Leipzig.
..... Click the link for more information. (1946–70). A perfectionist and disciplinarian, Szell brought the orchestra to international attention, leading it on several European tours and establishing its modern reputation for ascetic brilliance and commitment to serious music. He was succeeded by Lorin MaazelMaazel, Lorin Varencove,
1930–2014, American conductor, b. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. A musical prodigy, he spent his childhood in Los Angeles, where he made his conducting debut at nine and his violin debut at fifteen.
..... Click the link for more information. (1972–84), Christoph von Dohnányi (1984–2002), and Franz Welser-Möst (2002–). The orchestra tours widely, has a biennial residency at the Musikverein in Vienna, and since 2007 has had a winter residence at the Carnival Center in Miami.