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in geobotany, the final and relatively stable state of vegetation that results from replacement or succession (a series of successive replacements) of the plant cover.
The concept of climax was elaborated in detail by the American phytocenologist H. Cowles in 1901. The American botanist F. Clements considered climax a process equivalent to the individual development of an organism; he believed that for every large, climatically homogeneous territory there was only one final formation (one climax). However, a phytocenosis as a whole is not capable of multiplying and, moreover, the succession that completes a climax occurs on the basis of uniting heterogeneous elements (species) on a common territory and not on the basis of differentiation of a single organism, as occurs in individual development.
The concept of climax as a relatively stable state attained by vegetation in the process of its development in a definite place has both theoretical and practical interest. It permits forecasting the direction of the natural course of replacement of vegetation, which is important in planning meliorative measures and exploitation of forest, meadow, and steppe lands.
REFERENCESAleksandrova, V. D. “Dinamika rastitel’nogo pokrova.” In the collection Polevaia geobotanika, vol. 3. Moscow-Leningrad, 1964.
Shennikov, A. P. Vvedenie v geobotaniku. Leningrad, 1964.
A. A. URANOV
stylistic gradation, an intonational and syntactic sequence whose members are arranged in order of increasing significance (as opposed to enumeration, where they are of equal strength). For example,the lines of S. Esenin:
Ne zhaleiu, ne zovu, ne plachu,
Vse proidet, kak s belykh iablon’ dym.
I am not sorry, I do not call, I do not weep,
All will pass like blossoms from white apple trees.
the world’s largest deposit of molybdenum ore; located in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado at an altitude of 3,500 m. The deposit has been known since the end of the 19th century; exploratory work started in 1917.
The Climax deposit is located among very ancient Precam-brian granite, gneiss, and crystalline schist that have been separated by a major fault, the Mosquito fault, from the sedimentary Carboniferous rock that has developed farther to the west. The deposit arose under the effect of postmagmatic hydrothermal processes related to the intrusion of magmatic rock (monzoniteporphyries) along the stock fault. The deposit is zonal in structure. Its core, with a diameter of around 500 m, is composed of heavily crushed quartz rock with a minuscule molybdenum content. Around the core is a ring-like zone of commercial molybdenum ores 100 to 300 m wide; it has been traced to a depth of 500 m with drilling. The zone consists of hydrothermally reworked fissured intrusive rock broken by numerous mineral veins. These veins form a pipe-like stockwork. In addition to the widely developed molybdenite and pyrite, the veins of ore minerals have wolframite, cassiterite, and monazite.
The molybdenum reserves (with an average content of 0.4 percent) have been estimated at 1.2–1.6 million tons. The annual molybdenum output is 15,000–20,000 tons (1969). Tungsten, tin, and monazite and pyrite concentrates are also extracted from the Climax ores.
REFERENCESSmirnov, V. I. Geologiia poleznykh iskopaemykh, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1969.
Khrushchov, N. A. Molibden. (Otsenka mestorozhdenii pri poiskakh i razvedkakh, vol. 19.) Moscow-Leningrad, 1961.
V. I. SMIRNOV
the point or period of greatest upsurge or maximum intensity in the development of anything. In the arts (literature, theater, motion pictures) it is the most tense moment in the action (plot), the turning point in the protagonists’ relationships and conflicts, after which begins the transition to the denouement. In terms of content, the climax is an ordeal that brings to a head the problem treated in an artistic work and clearly reveals the hero’s character—for example, the scene in which a shot is heard in A. P. Chekhov’s Uncle Vanya.