Compared with soft fouling organisms such as clionid
sponges and ascidians, sessile fouling organisms such as oysters are difficult to remove.
Bioerosion traces were predominately of clionid sponges and gastropods.
Clionid sponges are the most frequent borers in all environments, and environments with hard substrata have the highest diversities of borers (Best and Kidwell, 2000).
Distribution of clionid
sponges in the Florida Keys National Sanctuary (FKNMS), 2001-2003.
borings are frequently found on marine shells, and are sometimes even found actively excavating into the surfaces of shells of living molluscs (Vermeij 1978: 64).
Bioerosion traces in shells were predominately those of clionid
sponges and gastropods.
KEY WORDS: oyster, Crassostrea virginica, restoration, clionid
sponge, salinity, bioerosion, settlement, recruitment, growth, mortality
Induced colonization of corals by a clionid
ABSTRACT Several restored oyster (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) reefs in Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, have experienced recent population crashes, potentially caused in part by clionid
boring sponge infestation of the marl rock (a calcium carbonate-mud composite material) commonly used as a reef substrate and of the shells of oysters that colonize the marl reef foundation.
References to sea scallops adductor muscles described as discolored (dark) with a flaccid, stringy, or gelatinous texture are found in the literature, and causes are attributed to many factors, including clionid
infestation, prokaryotic infection, and age-related senescence (Stevenson 1936, Medcof 1949, Gulka et al.
The first incidence of clionid
sponges (Porifera) from the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea commercialis (Iredale and Roughley, 1933).
infections were most frequent at the Pedotti Ranch site, where the differences in degree of shell parasitism with clionid
infections varied widely.