Clionidae

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Clionidae

[‚klī′än·ə‚dē]
(invertebrate zoology)
The boring sponges, a family of marine sponges in the class Demospongiae.

Clionidae

 

a family of sponges of the order Tetraxonida (four-rayed sponges). Clionids are capable of boring winding passages into a solid limestone substrate. They are usually found in the shallow waters of warm and temperate seas. There are about 20 species. In the USSR species have been found in the Sea of Japan and in the Black, White, and Barents seas. It is believed that the drilling mechanism of clionids consists in the secretion of carbon dioxide by certin superficial cells, as well as mechanical actions of the cells. Clionids are dangerous pests of oyster beds: they cause a fatal disease of oysters by settling on the shells and boring passages in them. One of the methods to control the disease is the immersion of affected oysters in fresh water for a short period of time.

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KEY WORDS: oyster, Crassostrea virginica, restoration, clionid sponge, salinity, bioerosion, settlement, recruitment, growth, mortality
The distribution of clionid sponges in estuaries in the southeastern United States is highly dependent on salinity.
Coincident with the decline in oyster density at these reserves was an increase in the prevalence of Atlantic oyster drills (Ursosalpinx cinerea) and clionid boring sponges.
Level of infestation by clionid sponges had no statistically significant effect on mean settlement of oyster larvae onto oyster shells (1-way ANOVA.
For instance, physiological tolerance appears to limit the distribution of clionid sponges to high-salinity portions of estuaries (Flopkins 1956, Hopkins 1962, Nicol & Reisman 1976, Carver et al.
ABSTRACT Several restored oyster (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) reefs in Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, have experienced recent population crashes, potentially caused in part by clionid boring sponge infestation of the marl rock (a calcium carbonate-mud composite material) commonly used as a reef substrate and of the shells of oysters that colonize the marl reef foundation.
KEY WORDS: oyster, Crassostrea virginica, restoration, bioerosion, clionid sponge, salinity, recruitment, growth
Potential alternative sources of oyster mortality were Atlantic oyster drills (Ursosalpinx cinerea), which were seen in high abundance on some reefs, and clionid boring sponges, as the sponges are now pervasive on and within the marl substrate and within oyster shells at the impacted sanctuaries (NC DMF and N.
After the recent invasion of marl-based reefs by clionid boring sponges at both eastern and western Pamlico Sound oyster reserves, non-CaC[O.
References to sea scallops adductor muscles described as discolored (dark) with a flaccid, stringy, or gelatinous texture are found in the literature, and causes are attributed to many factors, including clionid infestation, prokaryotic infection, and age-related senescence (Stevenson 1936, Medcof 1949, Gulka et al.
The first incidence of clionid sponges (Porifera) from the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea commercialis (Iredale and Roughley, 1933).
Clionid infections were most frequent at the Pedotti Ranch site, where the differences in degree of shell parasitism with clionid infections varied widely.