Clionidae

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Clionidae

[‚klī′än·ə‚dē]
(invertebrate zoology)
The boring sponges, a family of marine sponges in the class Demospongiae.

Clionidae

 

a family of sponges of the order Tetraxonida (four-rayed sponges). Clionids are capable of boring winding passages into a solid limestone substrate. They are usually found in the shallow waters of warm and temperate seas. There are about 20 species. In the USSR species have been found in the Sea of Japan and in the Black, White, and Barents seas. It is believed that the drilling mechanism of clionids consists in the secretion of carbon dioxide by certin superficial cells, as well as mechanical actions of the cells. Clionids are dangerous pests of oyster beds: they cause a fatal disease of oysters by settling on the shells and boring passages in them. One of the methods to control the disease is the immersion of affected oysters in fresh water for a short period of time.

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Compared with soft fouling organisms such as clionid sponges and ascidians, sessile fouling organisms such as oysters are difficult to remove.
Bioerosion traces were predominately of clionid sponges and gastropods.
Clionid sponges are the most frequent borers in all environments, and environments with hard substrata have the highest diversities of borers (Best and Kidwell, 2000).
Distribution of clionid sponges in the Florida Keys National Sanctuary (FKNMS), 2001-2003.
Clionid borings are frequently found on marine shells, and are sometimes even found actively excavating into the surfaces of shells of living molluscs (Vermeij 1978: 64).
Bioerosion traces in shells were predominately those of clionid sponges and gastropods.
KEY WORDS: oyster, Crassostrea virginica, restoration, clionid sponge, salinity, bioerosion, settlement, recruitment, growth, mortality
ABSTRACT Several restored oyster (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) reefs in Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, have experienced recent population crashes, potentially caused in part by clionid boring sponge infestation of the marl rock (a calcium carbonate-mud composite material) commonly used as a reef substrate and of the shells of oysters that colonize the marl reef foundation.
References to sea scallops adductor muscles described as discolored (dark) with a flaccid, stringy, or gelatinous texture are found in the literature, and causes are attributed to many factors, including clionid infestation, prokaryotic infection, and age-related senescence (Stevenson 1936, Medcof 1949, Gulka et al.
The first incidence of clionid sponges (Porifera) from the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea commercialis (Iredale and Roughley, 1933).
Clionid infections were most frequent at the Pedotti Ranch site, where the differences in degree of shell parasitism with clionid infections varied widely.