Closed Ecosystem

Ecosystem, Closed


a functionally unified assemblage of organisms (plants, animals, and microorganisms) inhabiting a common territory and capable of prolonged existence under conditions of a closed cycle of matter (that is, in the absence of matter exchange across the boundaries).

The ecosystem principle is used in the development of life-support systems to maintain human life in places other than the earth’s biosphere, for example, in spacecraft or underwater craft. Such an artificially created ecosystem is based on plants, which in the process of photosynthesis use light energy to absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen, that is, regenerate the atmosphere. The plant biomass can be used as food by man and by other heterotrophic organisms, which themselves, in turn, can serve as food for man. The unused plant biomass and the metabolic wastes of man and other components of the artificial biocenosis are decomposed by microorganisms to form water, carbon dioxide, and mineral substances, which are reused by the plants.

Experimental closed ecosystems have been created in the USSR consisting of man, unicellular algae, higher plants (cabbages, carrots, beets, tomatoes, wheat), and microorganisms, which act as mineralizers. Regeneration in such ecosystems fully satisfies man’s requirements for oxygen and water and provides 20 percent of his food. Natural ecolosystems usually are referred to simply as ecosystems.


Odum, E. Osnovy ekologii. Moscow, 1975. (Translated from English.) Chapter 20.
Osnovy kosmicheskoi biologii i meditsiny, vol. 3. Moscow, 1975. Chapter 10.
Eksperimental’nye ekologicheskie sistemy, vkliuchaiushchie cheloveka. Moscow, 1975. (Problemy kosmicheskoi biologii, vol. 28.)


References in periodicals archive ?
by determining their size or position on the printer's platform) and, along with the printer and printing materials, constitutes a closed ecosystem to ensure the highest quality for precise printouts.
Though the Windows Phone operating system boasts a refreshing tiles-based interface and secured closed ecosystem, it is still lags far behind the Android platform in terms of apps and games collection, giving Micromax an edge over Nokia.
During introduction, the head of the ISCAS criticize Apple s iOS for being a closed ecosystem.
The Earth is a closed ecosystem, and our growing population is now facing the limits of resource availability.
It holds one fifth of all the world's fresh water--more than all the Great Lakes combined--in a nearly closed ecosystem, sustaining 2,500 indigenous species and sub-species.
It was the boldest attempt ever'' to create a closed ecosystem, said David Tilman, a University of Minnesota scientist, but it failed miserably.
We are disrupting the closed ecosystem in mobile infrastructure that has been dominated by large telcos and equipment companies and hasn't seen much innovation.
It is ironic that a company that talks freely about openness is espousing a closed ecosystem.
Is this a sign that consumers are unhappy with Apple's closed ecosystem and would prefer a more open operating system?
In addition to providing instant access to their online marketplace where you can shop for new talent, SalesCloser offers companies access to the system for use with their current sales force, for which each company is provided a closed ecosystem.
Focused on fixing the problem of abysmal end user adoption of expense management solutions and on moving the industry out of its poorly performing and closed ecosystem, ExpenseWire's on-demand software is the center of a firestorm of adoption and of a dynamic, open ecosystem.
At the end of the day, however, it's a closed ecosystem that can leave system administrators without the appropriate tools to run heterogeneous systems.