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the minimal articulated unit of speech, consisting of one or several sounds that form a compact phonetic entity and that occur during one chest pulse. Proponents of various theories concerning the syllable believe that a syllable is produced by one muscular contraction, by modulation (narrowing and widening) of the pharynx, or by the degree of sonority and the order in which sounds are uttered.

A syllable is composed of a beginning (onset), a peak (nucleus), and a final part (coda). A peak is formed by simple vowels (ma-ma), by sonorants in some languages (Czech prst, “finger”), and occasionally by obstruents (psst!). A syllable’s beginning and end are formed by one or more consonants; in some languages a syllable may consist only of a peak (o-ni, “they”). Syllables are closed when they end in a consonant and open when they end in a vowel. They are uncovered when they begin with a vowel and covered when they begin with a consonant. The commonest syllable structure, found in all languages of the world, is consonant followed by vowel.

Division into syllables often does not correspond to division into morphemes. In the word ruchka (“handle”), morphemes for example, there are two syllables (ru-chka) but three morphemes (ruch-k-a). In syllabic languages, such as Chinese, morphemes are generally monosyllabic and syllable and morpheme boundaries coincide. In such languages, the beginning of a syllable is contrasted to its end, which is limited to certain permissible sounds.


References in periodicals archive ?
From an initial look it is clear that it is in the closed syllables we find most of the variation.
Nevertheless they seem to be good candidates to show the effect, since, after the trisyllabic words ending in an open and a closed syllable, the trisyllabic words ending in open syllables show the highest percentage of initial stress (cf.
The geminates occurring at the boundary between the stem and the formative in the infinitive, gerund and impersonal forms stem from grade alternation according to the phonetic law where the phonetic law supersedes the boundary of the morphological division of a word: the cluster of a stem-final consonant and an initial stop of the formative in a closed syllable has undergone gradation and the weak-grade equivalent of *t of the formative of the corresponding forms has assimilated with the preceding consonant, e.
The data in (15) and (16) together tell us that KT avoids closed syllables with a long vowel and that it does not matter whether or not the closed syllable is word-internal or word-final.
If a word ends in <<a, u, y, y>> or if these vowels are in the final closed syllable, then the stress is on these vowels.
If quantity sensitivity is active, the closed syllable should count as heavy, so a closed penult should block stress on the preceding syllable.
There wasn't ever anything like Closed Syllable Lengthening
Since NOCODA occupies an important niche is the grammar of Zoque it is instructive to consider once again the words in (3) and (6) with a closed syllable.
Another possibility is to account for the lenition of closed syllable onsets by referring to foot isochrony (Viitso 2003 : 162; Eek, Meister 2004 : 345).
interpretation of Philippi's Law then it must be said that Rendsburg's portrayal of the development as "Proto-Semitic *gint > *gitt > *git > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]" conflicts not only with the LXX evidence but also with Rendsburg's own extremely emphatic statement that Philippi's shift occurs "in an originally closed accented syllable (that is, a syllable that was closed even in its proto-form [as opposed to a closed syllable brought about by some other historical development]).
When occurring in an open syllable (a) it scans as short; when occurring in a closed syllable (b) it scans as long.
Laanest following a long vowel or a closed syllable are transcribed with lengthened (i.