coal mining

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coal mining,

physical extraction of coal resources to yield coal; also, the business of exploring for, developing, mining, and transporting coal in any form. Strip mining is the process in which the overburden (earth and rock material overlying the coal) is removed to expose a coal seam or coal bed. Excavators either dispose of the overburden or store the waste material for replacement after the coal has been extracted. Once exposed, the coal is usually removed in a separate operation. Surface soil is often stripped separately and spread back onto the reclaimed surface. The environment can also be protected by seeding or planting grass or trees on the fertilized restored surface of a strip mine. The term strip mining is most often used in reference to coal mining, although the process may also be used to extract certain metallic ores as well. Sometimes the terms open-pit, open-cast, or surface mining are used in the same sense, although they usually refer to metalliferous mining or the mining of other minerals. Underground coal mining is the extraction of coal from below the surface of the earth. The coal is worked through tunnels, passages, and openings that are connected to the surface for the purpose of the removal of the coal. Mechanical equipment breaks the coal to a size suitable for haulage. Alternatively, the coal is drilled, and the resultant holes are loaded with explosives and blasted in order to break the coal to the desired size. In order to protect the miners and equipment in an underground coal mine, much attention is paid to maintaining and supporting a safe roof or overhead ceiling for the extraction openings. Long-wall mining is a method of underground mining believed to have been developed in Shropshire, England, near the end of the 17th cent. A long face, or working section, of coal, some 600 ft (180 m) in length, is operated at one time. The miners and machinery at the working face are usually protected by hydraulic jacks or mechanical props which are advanced as the coal is extracted. The excavated, or gob, area is either allowed to cave in, or is filled in by waste material called stowing. The Anderton shearer is a widely used coal cutter and loader for long-wall mining. It shears coal from the face as it moves in one direction and loads coal onto an armored conveyor as it travels back in the opposite direction. It is ordinarily used for coal seams greater than 3.5 ft (9.1 cm) in thickness.

coal mining

[′kōl ‚mīn·iŋ]
(mining engineering)
The technical and mechanical job of removing coal from the earth and preparing it for market.
References in periodicals archive ?
NYSE AMEX: PUDA) ("Puda Coal" or the "Company"), a supplier of high grade metallurgical coking coal used to produce coke for steel manufacturing in China and consolidator of nine coal mines in Pinglu County Yuncheng City known as Pinglu Project and four coking coal mines in Huozhou County Linfen City known as Jianhe Project in Shanxi Province, today announced that Shanxi Puda Coal Group Co.
The Chinese government's efforts at cutting down and consolidating coal mines which were environmentally hazardous with inefficient production and low safety standards, was initiated during early 2006.
Site visits to the Company's coal mines under Pinglu Project in Southern Shanxi Province, one coal mine under Jianhe Project, one coal washing facility in central Shanxi Province, and its corporate headquarters in central north of Shanxi Province.
We have now successfully acquired all coal mines to be consolidated under our Pinglu Project.
Since the technological upgrades and capacity improvements are carried out on existing coal mines with good operating records, coal will be produced during the construction period but will be produced at a reduced level; and (4) the government inspects the construction quality, environmental and safety practices at the improved coal mines and issue operating licenses.
For example, the expected time to complete their construction and production capacity and the annual capacity of the acquired coal mines will be subject to risks and uncertainties relating to market and geological conditions as well as our management's ability to operate and manage the coal mines.
It also involves in the production and distribution of kaolin, as well as the construction of coal mines and coal separation factories.
Pursuant to Shanxi Province's coal mine consolidator program, consolidators are required to do exploration for the reserves of the assigned target coal mines and submit geological technical reports to Shanxi province's technical reviewer.
is one of the largest coal producers in the United States, where it operates underground and surface coal mines in Wyoming and Colorado, as well as in Australia, where ARCO Coal Australia Inc.
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PUBLIC SECTOR behemoth Steel Authority of India ( SAIL) has emerged on a stronger footing with the landmark acquisition of large coal mines in Mozambique which will provide an assured supply of raw material at affordable cost to the Indian steel maker.