coconut

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coconut,

fruit of the coco palmpalm,
common name for members of the Palmae, a large family of chiefly tropical trees, shrubs, and vines. Most species are treelike, characterized by a crown of compound leaves, called fronds, terminating a tall, woody, unbranched stem.
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 (Cocos nucifera), a tree widely distributed through tropical regions. The seed is peculiarly adapted to dispersal by water because the large pod holding the nut is buoyant and impervious to moisture. The trees therefore establish themselves naturally on small islands and low shores bordering the tropical seas. The tree grows to a height of 60–100 ft (18–30 m), with a smooth cylindrical stem marked by the ringlike scars of former leaves. It bears at the top a crown of frondlike leaves and yellow or white blossoms.

The number of nuts varies; a well-cared-for tree may yield 75 to 200 or more annually. The mature fruit as it comes from the tree is encased in a thick, brown fibrous husk. The nut itself has a hard woody shell, with three round scars at one end; the embryo lies against the largest scar and emerges through it as a developing plant. Through this easily punctured spot the "milk" of the young coconut may be drained.

Commercial Value

Its constantly growing commercial value has led to extensive cultivation of the coconut, especially in the Malay Archipelago, Sri Lanka, and India. The coco palm is one of the most useful trees in existence, every part of it having some value. The fruit, either ripe or unripe, raw or cooked, is a staple food in the tropics; the terminal bud, called palm cabbage, is considered a delicacy; the inner part of young stems is also eaten. The milk of the young nut is a nutritious drink. A sweet liquid obtained from the flower buds ferments readily and is used as a beverage, both when fresh and when distilled to make arrack; it may be boiled down to make various palm sugars, e.g., jaggery. The leaves are used for making fans, baskets, and thatch. The coir (coarse fibers obtained from the husk) is made into cordage, mats, and stuffing; it becomes more buoyant and elastic than hemp in saltwater. The hard shell and the husk are used for fuel. The fibrous center of the old trunk is also used for ropes, and the timber, known as porcupine wood, is hard and fine-grained and takes a high polish. From the nutshells are made containers of various kinds—cups, ladles, and bowls—often highly polished and ornamentally carved. The root is chewed as a narcotic.

Commercially the greatest value of the coconut lies in the oil, which is extracted from the dried kernels of the fruit. The nuts when ripe are apt to spoil or become rancid; therefore when they are gathered they are broken open, and the flesh is dried and exported under the name of copra. The oil content of copra ranges from 50% to 70%, depending upon the method of drying. Coconut oil, the major type of palm oil, has been extracted by mortar and pestle in Asia since antiquity; the coconut and the olive are the earliest recorded sources of vegetable oil. Primitive methods of drying and expressing the copra are giving way to modern machinery such as rotary driers and hydraulic presses. The residue, known as coco cake, makes excellent cattle food, as it usually contains a remnant of 6%–10% oil. Large quantities of shredded or desiccated coconut made from copra and many whole coconuts are exported for use chiefly in the making of cakes, desserts, and confectionery.

Classification

Coconuts are classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Liliopsida, order Arecales, family Palmae.

coconut

[′kō·kə‚nət]
(botany)
Cocos nucifera. A large palm in the order Arecales grown for its fiber and fruit, a large, ovoid, edible drupe with a fibrous exocarp and a hard, bony endocarp containing fleshy meat (endosperm).

coconut

presented to women who want to be mothers. [Ind. Folklore: Binder, 85]

coconut

, cocoanut
the fruit of the coconut palm, consisting of a thick fibrous oval husk inside which is a thin hard shell enclosing edible white meat. The hollow centre is filled with a milky fluid (coconut milk)
References in periodicals archive ?
5 ( ANI ): A house owner in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, has claimed that a coconut tree located at the back has delivered a record breaking 5000 coconuts.
Mr Pushpakumara did not accept the position of the Southern Coconut growers and said that if they save the disease prone coconut trees in Weligama, there is a possibility of the disease spreading to other parts of the country and for the sake of saving other coconut plantations in other parts of the country and as a national issue they would be cutting down all these coconut trees.
On both coconut trees, sunlight direction and intensity as received everyday are almost similar; and moreover those trees grew on flat farm area.
A young man climbs a coconut tree to harvest coconuts, something he has done almost every day since childhood.
By her projection, farmers doing so can earn an additional P10,000 monthly from cacao and coffee harvests while waiting for the coconut harvest, maximizing the spaces between coconut trees.
I traveled recently to the west coast of Zamboanga City, which has around 30,000 hectares of coconut trees, to take a look at the cocolisap infestation.
Andal said there are about 350 million coconut trees in the country, of which 15 percent to 20 percent, or around 52 million to 70 million, are old and produce fewer nuts.
More than 33 million coconut trees were destroyed by 195mph winds and millions of trees will take between six to eight years to grow back.
It is worth mentioning that PACI has registered a number of certificates of deposits for craft products, such as silver and copper works, as well as other craft products from the peels of coconut trees and bones.
Other bizarre items passengers have tried to get on board include a giant cheese wheel, a car engine, a tarantula and coconut trees, a poll by the airline found.
Several coconut cultivation district in Sri Lanka is affected by a coconut pest that has completely destroyed coconut trees in the Galle, Matara and Hambantota districts, creating an acute shortage of coconut and shooting up coconut prices.
MUSCAT: His Majesty Sultan Qaboos bin Said has issued Royal Orders to plant 100,000 coconut trees in Dhofar.