Richard

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Richard

Sir Cliff, real name Harry Rodger Webb. born 1940, British pop singer. Film musicals include The Young Ones (1961) and Summer Holiday (1962)

Richard

 

the name of several kings in England.

Richard I the Lion-Hearted (French, Coeur de Lion). Born Sept. 8, 1157, in Oxford; died Apr. 6, 1199, at Châlus, France. Became king in 1189; member of the Plantagenet dynasty.

A typical medieval knight-adventurer, Richard I waged incessant wars that were alien to England’s interests and cost the country enormous sums of money. He took part in the Third Crusade (1189–92), during which he captured the island of Cyprus and the fortress of Acre in Palestine. On the return journey he was taken prisoner by the Austrian duke Leopold V, who handed him over to Emperor Henry VI. Richard was not set free until 1194, when a huge ransom was paid. In 1194 he began a war against the French king Philip II Augustus, who was attempting to win back the lands held by the Plantagenets in France. Richard was killed during this war.

REFERENCE

Chronicles and Memorials of the Reign of Richard I, vols. 1-2. Edited by W. Stubbs. London, 1864–65.
Richard II. Born Jan. 6, 1367, in Bordeaux; died Feb. 14, 1400, at Pontefract Castle. King from 1377 to 1399; last Plantagenet King. Grandson of King Edward III and son of Edward the Black Prince.
During Richard’s minority the country was ruled by a council headed by Richard’s uncle John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. Richard took a direct part in the suppression of the Wat Tyler revolt of 1381. In 1389 he began ruling on his own with the assistance of Parliament and part of the nobility. His establishment of strict one-man rule in 1397 provoked a rebellion by the great feudal lords under the leadership of John of Gaunt’s son Henry of Lancaster, who later became King Henry IV. Richard was deposed on Sept. 30, 1399, and subsequently either was killed or died of starvation in prison. Shakespeare devoted a historical drama to Richard II.

REFERENCE

Steel, A. B. Richard II. Cambridge, 1941.
Richard III. Born Oct. 2, 1452, in Fotheringhay Castle; died Aug. 22, 1485, at Bosworth. Became king in 1483; last king of the House of York. Younger brother of King Edward IV.
Richard was created duke of Gloucester in 1461 and became king during the Wars of the Roses. In 1483 he was named protector of the realm during the minority of Edward V, son of Edward IV. Richard deposed the young king and imprisoned him in the Tower of London. In the battle of Bosworth in 1485 Richard was defeated and killed.
In 16th-century literature Richard III is usually portrayed as a direct participant in the murders of the deposed English king Henry VI, of Edward V, and of Edward’s brother. Richard was also said to have poisoned his wife Anne and murdered his brother the duke of Clarence. Richard is the subject of T. More’s unfinished History of King Richard III (Russian translation, 1973) and Shakespeare’s historical drama Richard III.

REFERENCE

Kendall, P. M. Richard the Third. London, 1955.
References in periodicals archive ?
Unlike many recent books of poetry, which seek to assimilate both pop and academic cultures, Coeur de Lion does so without any ironic posturing or condescension; the book's treatment of its subjects is sincere.
1199: Richard I, Coeur de Lion, King of England, died of his wound days after being hit by a crossbow bolt while laying siege to the castle of Chalus-Chabrol.
1994: The presidents of the 1199: Richard I, Coeur de Lion, King of England, was killed in battle.
Check out the new season's ranges of contemporary jewellery from leading brands such as Ti Sento, Nomination, Coeur de Lion, Kit Heath and Tianguis Jackson to name but a few.
Saint Agur blue cheese (up 19% in volume), Coeur de Lion La Buche goats cheese (up 116%) and Le Rustique Camembert (up 5%) have all shifted significantly more product this year, ULN reports.
1199 - Richard I, Coeur de Lion, King of England, was killed in battle.
No, the conflict between Islam and Christianity goes back to Richard Coeur de Lion and The Crusades.
Saladin lectured English King Richard Coeur de Lion that Jerusalem "is holy to us as well as to you, and more so, seeing it is the scene of our Prophet's journey, and the place where our people must assemble at the Last Day.
Visitors are welcome at the Domaine Coeur de Lion distillery, which is near Pont l'Eveque.
McLelland's Seriously Farmy just pipped Cathedral City, Coeur de Lion and Pilgrims Choice into fifth place taking the remaining 7%, but all four brands recorded fairly even activity.
Among those honored were: "Best Vodka," Shakespeare Vodka, Poland; "Best Flavored Vodka," Danzka Grapefruit Vodka, Denmark; "Best Dark Rum," Inner Circle Green Dot, Australia; "Best Tequilla," Herradura Reposado Tequila, Mexico; "Best Aquavit," Linie Lysholm, Norway; "Best Armagnac," Laberdolive Vintage 1985, France; "Best Calvados," Christian Drouin Coeur de Lion, France; "Best Liqueur," Grand Marnier Cuvee Speciale Cent Cinquantenaire, France.
Croix ($28); Best Cognac, Hennessy Cognac XO, France, ($150); Best other Brandy, Christian Drouin Coeur de Lion Calvados, 23 years old, ($150); Best Tequila, Herradura Anejo Tequila, 5 Years, Seleccion Suprema, Amatitan, Jalisco, Mexico ($250); Best Vodka, Pearl, Western Alberta, Canada ($25/Ltr); Best Blended Scotch, Johnnie Walker Blended Scotch Whisky, Blue Label, Scotland ($180) and Best Bourbon, Woodford Reserve Small Batch Bourbon, Distiller's Select, Kentucky ($25).