Cofactors


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

Cofactors

 

in biochemistry, substances necessary for the catalytic activity of a particular enzyme. Cofactors are essential constituents of most enzyme systems and are classified as fol-lows: prosthetic groups, which are strongly bonded with the protein carrier apoenzyme; coenzymes, which are relatively easy to separate from apoenzymes; and metal ions (metallic coenzymes). No clearly defined boundary exists between the terms “cofactor,” “coenzyme,” and “prosthetic group.”

REFERENCES

“Fermenty.” Edited by A. E. Braunshtein. Moscow, 1964. (Osnovy molekuliarnoi biologii.) Page 148.
Kretovich, V. L. Vvedenie v enzimologiiu. Moscow, 1967.
References in periodicals archive ?
Some studies have suggested HSV-2 is one such cofactor, and in vitro experiments have shown a synergistic interaction between HSV-2 and HPV, but the findings of the current study did not bear this out, Dr.
Other possible regulatory factors include the presence of termination inhibitors or enhancers or a regulatory role of the magnesium cofactor.
For example, the mixing of aqueous high molecular weight PEO with some cofactors results in precipitate formation - clearly some form of interaction is taking place.
Nutritional cofactor therapy commonly includes L-carnitine and may also include the B-complex of vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, cobalamin and folic acid), vitamin C and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K in different combinations.
Effective bone formation without the need for cofactors is an important aspect of a successful bone regeneration therapy.
First, in my article (Fewtrell 2004) I did not suggest that the role of cofactors was a novel discovery, as evidenced by the selection of articles I cited noting such factors.
In Bangladesh and West Bengal, for example, the most likely cofactors for arsenicosis include malnutrition (with resulting deficiency of selenium and other nutrients that can affect arsenic metabolism) and agricultural activities that lead to frequent sun exposure.
The development of Autism is a multi-faceted pathway: There is no single direct cause and effect for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Chinese medicine though there are a set of cofactors that must be present.
Constructing protein scaffolds that will assemble and organize arrays of multiple pigments, and chains of redox cofactors are significant challenges at the forefront of the field of protein de novo design, and current theories of biological energy and electron transfer.
The finding, reported in the March 1 SCIENCE, supports a growing group of investigators championing the idea that mycoplasmas serve as cofactors in some cases of AIDS.
The company's products include a comprehensive range of vitamins, minerals, herbs, specialty formulas, nutritional hormones, diet aids and diet cofactors.
This is consistent with the cofactors necessary for carcinogenesis.