Male combat in American colubrid
snakes with remarks on combat in other colubrid
and elapid snakes.
The purpose of this study was to examine 6 species of colubrid snakes from California for helminths: the glossy snake, Arizona elegans; western shovelnose snake, Chionactis occipitalis; coachwhip, Masticophis flagellum; striped racer, Masticophis lateralis; spotted leafnose snake, Phyllorhynchus decurtatus; and longnose snake, Rhinocheilus lecontei.
One hundred fifty-nine individuals of six colubrid snake species: Arizona elegans (n = 43, mean snout-vent length [SVL] = 589 mm [+ or -] 205 SD, range = 238-930 mm), Chionactis occipitalis (n = 31, SVL = 258 mm [+ or -] 20 SD, range = 222-300 mm), Masticophis flagellum (n = 12, SVL = 861 mm [+ or -] 118 SD, range 697-1104 mm), Masticophis lateralis (n = 14, SVL = 765 mm [+ or 1] 136 SD, range 520-963 mm), Phyllorhynchus decurtatus (n = 26, SVL = 357 mm [+ or -]47 SD, range = 242-469 mm), and Rhinocheilus lecontei (n = 33, SVL = 590 mm [+ or -] 93 SD, range = 362-743 mm) were borrowed from the herpetology collection of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (LACM), Los Angeles, California (accession numbers, Appendix 1).
Comparative ecology of two colubrid
snakes, Masticophis t.
In the Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica, three species of venomous elapid coral snakes are sympatric with several non- or mildly venomous (rear-fanged) colubrid
snakes with bright banded patterns (Fig.
chlorophaea different from the more typical bimodal (high number of observations in spring and autumn) recorded for larger-bodied, temperate species of colubrid snakes (Oliver, 1955), such as racers (Coluber constrictor), hognose snakes (Heterodon), and ratsnakes (Pantherophis).
Relationship of Temperature to Activity Patterns-- Detailed studies on thermal ecology of snakes have dealt almost entirely with diurnal snakes such as Thamnophis (Scott, 1978; Peterson, 1982; Stevenson, 1983; Gregory, 1990), Coluber, and Masticophis (Hammerson, 1979), or are based on studies of colubrid or viperid taxa (Jacob and Painter, 1980; Sanders and Jacob, 1981; Graves and Duvall, 1987; Goode and Duvall, 1989).
The South American colubrid snake, Liophis poecilogyrus (Wied), is redescribed, its range redefined, and 27 names are listed as synonyms.
If other colubrid groups are examined, the conclusions regarding a correlation between labial number and snout length seem to exist in some, usually at the interspecific level, but are indiscernible in others.
Coelomic metazoan endoparasites of 15 colubrid
and two elapid snake species from Costa Rica.
Hemorrhagic, fibrinogenolytic and edema-forming activities of the venom of the colubrid snake Philodryas olfersii (green snake).
Envenomation by neotropical opisthoglyphous colubrid Thamnodynastes cf.