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1 City (1990 pop. 178,681), seat of Muscogee co., W Ga., at the head of navigation on the Chattahoochee River; settled and inc. 1828 on the site of a Creek village. The second largest city in the state, Columbus is a port of entry situated at the foot of a series of falls that extend more than 30 mi (48 km) and have provided extensive water power. An important industrial and shipping center with many giant textile mills (the first was built in 1838), it also has ironworks and food-processing plants. Factories produce lumber, chemicals, furniture, hospital equipment, concrete, and wood, rubber, paper, and metal products. Columbus was a busy river port until the arrival of the railroads in the 1850s. Its river traffic has been revitalized with the completion of a series of locks and dams that provide access to the Gulf of Mexico. During the Civil War, Columbus was captured by Union troops one week after Lee's surrender at Appomattox. Its industry grew with the development of 20th-century hydroelectric power plants. Many antebellum homes and Columbus College are in the city. Fort Benning is to the south.

2 City (1990 pop. 31,802), seat of Bartholomew co., S central Ind., on the East Fork of the White River; inc. 1821. Its many manufactures include transportation equipment, pharmaceutical and medical devices, food and beverages, plastics, and electronics. In the Civil War, Columbus served as a depot for Union armies. The city is known for its outstanding architecture, with many buildings designed by world-renowned architects from the late 1930s onward.

3 City (1990 pop. 23,799), seat of Lowndes co., NE Miss., on the Tombigbee River; inc. 1821. It is the trade, processing, and shipping center of a cotton, livestock, dairy, and timber area, and has marble and granite processing and diverse manufacturing. Franklin Academy, the first free school in the state, was opened in 1821. Mississippi State Univ. for Women and Columbus Air Force Base are there. The city has many beautiful antebellum homes. Tennessee WilliamsWilliams, Tennessee
(Thomas Lanier Williams), 1911–83, American dramatist, b. Columbus, Miss., grad. State Univ. of Iowa, 1938. One of America's foremost 20th-century playwrights and the author of more than 70 plays, he achieved his first successes with the productions of
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 was born there.

4 City (1990 pop. 632,910), state capital and seat of Franklin co., central Ohio, on the Scioto River; inc. as a city 1834. Ohio's largest city, it is a transportation, industrial, and trade center in a fertile farm region. Its manufactures include consumer goods, aircraft, engines, transportation equipment, glass, food, textiles, and primary metals. Government agencies and many research and educational centers are central to the economy, which expanded rapidly from the 1940s. Columbus is the seat of Ohio State Univ., Capital Univ., Ohio Dominican College, Franklin Univ., state schools for the deaf and blind, and Battelle Memorial Institute (for industrial research). Landmarks include the state capitol; the state office building and its library; Ohio State Univ.'s huge Ohio Stadium; the Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts; the Center of Science and Industry, a science museum designed by Arata IsozakiIsozaki, Arata
, 1931–, Japanese architect, b. Oita. One of his nation's most important contemporary architects, he has an international reputation and has designed notable buildings in Asia, Europe, and the United States.
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; the postmodern convention center designed by Peter Eisenman; the library and museum of the state archaeological and historical society; the headquarters of the American Rose Society, with one of the world's largest rose gardens; Camp Chase Confederate cemetery, with the graves of soldiers who died in the Civil War prison camp there; and the vast state fair grounds. The Griggs, O'Shaughnessy, and Hoover reservoirs are centers for park and recreational activities. The city also has a professional hockey team (the Blue Jackets), racetracks, and a variety of annual cultural events.

Columbus was laid out as state capital in 1812 but did not take over the government from ChillicotheChillicothe
, city (1990 pop. 21,923), seat of Ross co., S central Ohio, on the Scioto River; inc. 1802. It is the trade and distribution center of a farm area that specializes in raising cattle and hogs and growing corn. The city has long been noted for its large paper mills.
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 until 1816. Its growth was stimulated by the development of transportation facilities—a feeder canal to the Ohio and Erie Canal, which was opened in 1831; the National Road, which reached the city in 1833; and the railroad, which arrived in 1850.


See G. E. Condon, Yesterday's Columbus (1977).


(kŏ-lum -bŭs)
1. A space program featuring a science module built by the European Space Agency (ESA) and incorporated into the International Space Station (ISS). The 4.5-meter pressurized cylindrical module is ESA's biggest single contribution to the ISS and is intended for use by Earth-based researchers working through the Columbus Control Center in Germany, with occasional assistance from the ISS crew. Permanently docked with the ISS, the Columbus module shares its basic structure and life-support systems with the Italian Space Agency's Multipurpose Logistics Modules. Its 75-cubic-meter interior is large enough to house a suite of scientific laboratories, allowing experiments to be carried out in microgravity across a range of scientific disciplines, including fluid physics, the biological sciences, and materials science. Four mounting points outside the pressurized hull of the Columbus module make provision for science packages that need to be exposed to the vacuum of space. Such packages may include investigations into the ability of bacteria to survive on the surface of an artificial meteorite or observations of volcanic activity on the Earth.
2. A telescope project involving two 8-meter telescopes on a single mount, planned by the University of Arizona and Ohio State University, with Italy as a partner. It was renamed the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in 1993 and was scheduled to begin operations in 2005. See Steward Observatory.



a city in the northeastern part of the USA, capital of the state of Ohio. Located on the Scioto River (a tributary of the Ohio). Population, 540,000; with the suburbs, 916,000 (1970). The city is a major commercial and industrial center as well as a transportation junction. In 1970, 90,000 of its inhabitants were employed in industry. The city has various metal-working and machine-building, chemical, food-processing (especially meat-packing), and printing industries. Ohio State University (founded in 1870) is located there.



a city in the southeastern USA, located in the state of Georgia on the Chattahoochee River. Population, 155,-000; with the suburbs, 238,600 (1970). More than one-fourth of the population is Negro. The city is situated in a region of cotton, tobacco, and peanut growing. There are food-processing and textile industries (cotton and knitted goods), as well as the production of equipment for the textile industry.


Christopher. Spanish name Cristóbal Colón, Italian name Cristoforo Colombo. 1451--1506, Italian navigator and explorer in the service of Spain, who discovered the New World (1492)


1. a city in central Ohio: the state capital. Pop.: 728 432 (2003 est.)
2. a city in W Georgia, on the Chattahoochee River. Pop.: 185 702 (2003 est.)
References in classic literature ?
I viewed that lonely grave with something of the feeling that Columbus must have had when he saw the hills and headlands of the new world.
The discovery of new worlds by daring sailors like Columbus and Cabot, and the discovery of printing were among them.
A few years earlier Columbus had revealed the New World and virtually proved that the earth is round, a proof scientifically completed a generation after him when Magellan's ship actually circled the globe.
Thus, if I believe that Columbus crossed the Atlantic in 1492, the "objective" of my belief is Columbus's actual voyage, and the "reference" of my belief is the relation between my belief and the voyage--that relation, namely, in virtue of which the voyage makes my belief true (or, in another case, false).
I may believe that Columbus crossed the Atlantic, that all Cretans are liars, that two and two are four, or that nine times six is fifty-six; in all these cases the believing is just the same, and only the contents believed are different.
That all men are mortal," "that Columbus discovered America," "that Charles I died in his bed," "that all philosophers are wise," are propositions.
The decision at which Bill had arrived with such dramatic suddenness in the middle of Piccadilly was the same at which some centuries earlier Columbus had arrived in the privacy of his home.
The exact words probably which Columbus had used, talking the thing over with his wife.
Our place of destination in the first instance is Columbus.
We reached Columbus shortly before seven o'clock, and stayed there, to refresh, that day and night: having excellent apartments in a very large unfinished hotel called the Neill House, which were richly fitted with the polished wood of the black walnut, and opened on a handsome portico and stone verandah, like rooms in some Italian mansion.
My dear fellow--and you must permit me to say again, that you never looked so young; so positively boyish as you do to-night--the Lord knows where; I believe Columbus himself wouldn't find them.
In part because of Columbus Metal Industries' success with machinery, Sam says he was reluctant to accept the trial use of a Fuchs Model 350 scrap handler last year when approached by his long-time equipment dealer, Road builders, Omaha, Neb.