Comédie Française


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Comédie Française

(kōmādē` fräNsĕz`) or

Théâtre Français

(tāä`trə fräNsā`), state theater of France. Also known as La Maison de Molière, it was officially established by Louis XIV in 1680. His decree merged the two French companies of actors at Paris, the troupe of the Hôtel Guénégaud (see MolièreMolière, Jean Baptiste Poquelin
, 1622–73, French playwright and actor, b. Paris; son of a merchant who was upholsterer to the king. His name was originally Jean Baptiste Poquelin.
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 and BéjartBéjart
or Béjard
, French family of actors associated with Molière, who joined their amateur company, Les Enfants de Famille. Their professional debut in Paris (1643) was as the Illustre-Théâtre; this failed (1645) and the company
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) and the troupe of the Hôtel de BourgogneHôtel de Bourgogne
, first theater in Paris. It was built in 1548 by the Confraternity of the Passion, the Paris actors' monopoly. Its first days were marred by a ban on the presentation of religious dramas.
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. The following year an annual grant was allotted from the royal treasury, and a new theater was built for the company. The Comédie Française has had several homes since its inception and currently is housed on the Rue de Richelieu in a theater that was rebuilt following a disastrous fire in 1900. This theater was extensively renovated in 1994 and reopened in 1995. Except for a period (1792–1803) after the commencement of the French RevolutionFrench Revolution,
political upheaval of world importance in France that began in 1789. Origins of the Revolution

Historians disagree in evaluating the factors that brought about the Revolution.
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, the company has performed without significant interruption; it was reorganized and reopened (1803) under Napoleon I. Having as its mission the preservation of the heritage of French drama, the repertory is largely traditional, though modern works by French dramatists and foreign playwrights are also performed. In accord with a charter signed by Napoleon in 1812 and modified several times since, the company is organized collectively with all the permanent members, called sociétaires, or associates, sharing in the management of the company, while the actor who has served the longest functions as the head, or doyen.

Comédie Française

 

(officially, Théâtre Français), the oldest national theater in France.

The Comédie Française was founded in 1680 in Paris by a decree of Louis XIV that joined Molière’s company, which had earlier merged with the Théâtre du Marais, and the troupe of the Hôtel de Bourgogne. The members of the new theater included M. Champmeslé, M. Baron, C. La Grange, and A. Béjart.

The Comédie Française had a monopoly on dramatic performances and received a subsidy that enabled it to hire the best actors, thus assuring its position as France’s major theater. But its development was hampered by the conservatism of the royal court. There was a growing demarcation in the theater in the 18th century between the court-gentry and the democratic-Enlightenment varieties of classicism. Such democratic “Voltairean” actors as A. Lecouvreur, M. Dumesnil, H. Clairon, and H. Lekain retained the classical norms but sought psychological insight into their characters.

During the Great French Revolution, the Comédie Française was renamed the Théâtre de la Nation. Political struggle within the troupe led to a split. F. J. Talma, J. B. Dugazon, and F. M. R. Vestris left the Comédie Française and founded the Théâtre de la République. In 1799 the troupe was reunited, and the theater took its former name.

The Comédie Française staged Hugo’s progressive romantic dramas on the eve of the July Revolution of 1830. Before the Revolution of 1848 the actress E. Rachel played roles that resounded with heroic themes. In the 1820’s, the theater began presenting plays that counterposed the glorification of bourgeois morality to romanticism—the works of E. Scribe in the 1820’s and of E. Augier, A. Dumas fils, and V. Sardou in the 1840’s and 1850’s. The theater’s principal players in the 19th century and early 20th were M. George, A. Mars, Sarah Bernhardt, and J. Mounet-Sully.

Realistic acting traditions were developed primarily by the comedians—for instance, E. F. J. Got and C. B. Coquelin. In the late 19th and early 20th century, the Comédie Française began to stage works by the critical realist playwrights: H. Becque, A. France, J. Renard, and later E. Fabre. In the 1930’s such directors as J. Copeau, L. Jouvet, C. Dullin, and G. Baty worked with the theater. Many leading actors and directors of the contemporary French theater began their careers at the Comédie Française, including M. Bell, J. Yonnel, B. M. J. Bovy, B. Bretty, J.-L. Barrault, M. Renaud, and P. Dux.

By remaining true to classical traditions, the Comédie Française has avoided formalist and decadent tendencies. The works of such playwrights as Corneille, Racine, Molière, Marivaux, Beaumarchais, and Musset are widely represented in its repertoire. The principal actors of the theater in the 1950’s and 1960’s were J. Meyer, M. Escande, L. Seigner, and J. Bertheau. The Comédie Française frequently tours abroad; it performed in the USSR in 1954, 1964, 1969, and 1973.

REFERENCES

Mokul’skii, S. Istoriia zapadnoevropeiskogo teatra, vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1939.
Boiadzhiev, G. N. Teatral’nyi Parizh segodnia. [Moscow] 1960.
Istoriia zapadnoevropeiskogo teatra, vols. 3, 5. Moscow, 1963–70.
Valmy-Baysse, J. Naissance et vie de la Comédie-Française. Paris, 1945.
Bretty, B. La Comédie-Française à l’envers. Paris [1957].

E. L. FINKEL’SHTEIN