Comanche


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Comanche

(kəmăn`chē), Native North Americans belonging to the Shoshonean group of the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They originated from a Basin-type culture and eventually adopted a Plains culture. They separated from the Shoshone and migrated southward in the late 1600s, appearing in New Mexico around 1705. In the late 18th cent. and early 19th cent. their range included SE Colorado, SW Kansas, W Oklahoma, and N Texas. The Comanche were excellent horsemen and inveterate raiders, often pushing far S into Mexico. They were extremely warlike and effectively prevented white settlers from passing safely through their territory for more than a century. They are said to have killed more whites in proportion to their own numbers than any other Native American group. They were associated with the Kiowa, the Cheyenne, and the Arapaho in a loose confederacy. The Comanche, however, considered themselves superior to their associates, and their language served as the trade language for the area. The sun dance, a common feature in the Plains culture area, was not an important part of Comanche culture; they probably introduced the peyotepeyote
, spineless cactus (Lophophora williamsii), ingested by indigenous people in Mexico and the United States to produce visions. The plant is native to the SW United States, particularly S Texas, and Mexico, where it grows in dry soil.
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 ritual to the Plains tribes. Never a large group despite their wide range, their numbers were greatly reduced by warfare and disease. In 1990 there were about 11,500 Comanche in the United States.

Bibliography

See E. Wallace and E. A. Hoebel, Comanches, The Lords of the South Plains (1952); J. E. Harston, Comanche Land (1963); A. C. Greene, The Last Captive (1972); T. R. Fehrenbach, Comanches: The Destruction of a People (1974); P. Hamalainen, The Comanche Empire (2009); S. C. Gwynne, Empire of the Summer Moon (2010).

Comanche

 

one of the Shoshonean-speaking Indian tribes that inhabited the southwestern plains region of North America. In the 18th and 19th centuries they were nomadic horse breeders and bison hunters; they numbered approximately 30,000. During the 19th century they waged a heroic struggle against the colonizers who invaded their lands. Comanche resistance was broken in 1875, and the survivors (approximately 1,400 persons) were sent under escort to reservations in Oklahoma. The present-day Comanches (who numbered 5,800 in 1950) work mainly as hired hands on farms and ranches.

Comanche

horse; sole survivor of Little Big Horn massacre (1876). [Am. Hist.: Wallechinsky, 126]
References in periodicals archive ?
The backgrounds of Comanche moccasins of the 19th century were painted yellow using the clays they found in Palo Duro Canyon.
Comanche Nation tribal member LaDonna Harris said on Tuesday that the tribal chairman presented the actor with a proclamation at her Albuquerque home May 16, the New York Daily News reported.
And the harrowing truth in "Indian Life Today: A Politician Explains the Issues", sadly, will be missed by most Americans today--tribes relocated far from their homeground so whites can possess rich land--Mandans in Missouri; Cherokees in Rhode Island; Kansa in California; Iroquois in Alaska; Comanche in Wisconsin.
A case in point involves the migration and geographical mobility of the Comanche people.
Located about 40 miles southeast of Lawton, Oklahoma, Comanche High School is gaining both local and national attention for its progressive FFA chapter.
With skipper Mark Bradford at the helm, Black Jack had carved a nice lead at the sea mark, but as the wind bent to the east/nor' east, Comanche caught up and found the overtaking lane.
The leaders of United States-based Texas Electric Cooperatives is collaborating with Comanche Electric Cooperative, one of North Central Texas' top electric cooperatives.
Please be advised that the Piper Comanche landing gear uses an electric motor driving cables to retract and extend the landing gear.
In 1999, he joined the Comanche County district attorneys office, where he served as an assistant district attorney until 2003.
The Comanche Trail Pipeline and the WAHA Header went into service on Jan.
The Southern Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Comanche women all wore variations of this style of leggings during the nineteenth century, but in similar fashion to the differences found in men's moccasins which I have already discussed in Parts I-III, there were noticeable tribal differences in women's footwear preferences as well.
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