Comanche

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Comanche

(kəmăn`chē), Native North Americans belonging to the Shoshonean group of the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They originated from a Basin-type culture and eventually adopted a Plains culture. They separated from the Shoshone and migrated southward in the late 1600s, appearing in New Mexico around 1705. In the late 18th cent. and early 19th cent. their range included SE Colorado, SW Kansas, W Oklahoma, and N Texas. The Comanche were excellent horsemen and inveterate raiders, often pushing far S into Mexico. They were extremely warlike and effectively prevented white settlers from passing safely through their territory for more than a century. They are said to have killed more whites in proportion to their own numbers than any other Native American group. They were associated with the Kiowa, the Cheyenne, and the Arapaho in a loose confederacy. The Comanche, however, considered themselves superior to their associates, and their language served as the trade language for the area. The sun dance, a common feature in the Plains culture area, was not an important part of Comanche culture; they probably introduced the peyotepeyote
, spineless cactus (Lophophora williamsii), ingested by indigenous people in Mexico and the United States to produce visions. The plant is native to the SW United States, particularly S Texas, and Mexico, where it grows in dry soil.
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 ritual to the Plains tribes. Never a large group despite their wide range, their numbers were greatly reduced by warfare and disease. In 1990 there were about 11,500 Comanche in the United States.

Bibliography

See E. Wallace and E. A. Hoebel, Comanches, The Lords of the South Plains (1952); J. E. Harston, Comanche Land (1963); A. C. Greene, The Last Captive (1972); T. R. Fehrenbach, Comanches: The Destruction of a People (1974); P. Hamalainen, The Comanche Empire (2009); S. C. Gwynne, Empire of the Summer Moon (2010).

Comanche

 

one of the Shoshonean-speaking Indian tribes that inhabited the southwestern plains region of North America. In the 18th and 19th centuries they were nomadic horse breeders and bison hunters; they numbered approximately 30,000. During the 19th century they waged a heroic struggle against the colonizers who invaded their lands. Comanche resistance was broken in 1875, and the survivors (approximately 1,400 persons) were sent under escort to reservations in Oklahoma. The present-day Comanches (who numbered 5,800 in 1950) work mainly as hired hands on farms and ranches.

Comanche

horse; sole survivor of Little Big Horn massacre (1876). [Am. Hist.: Wallechinsky, 126]
References in periodicals archive ?
The Comanche and Quanah Parker in particular have a deeply-etched place in western lore and the legacy of Texas and Texans.
Personal photographs, military uniforms and a Nazi flag captured during World War II are some of the items on display in a new exhibit honoring 17 members of the Comanche Nation who used their language as a code during the war.
The map illustrating the Comanche's 1840s raiding hinterland into Mexico is particularly revealing, showing that Comanches trekked as far as 2,500 kilometres to relieve Zacatecas and Guadalajara of their women, children, and stock.
This story of an empire built and lost eventually (in about 1875) details the Comanches who, as long ago as the 18th century, were lords of the buffalo country.
They're Texas Rangers in the 1850s, protecting the burgeoning town of Austin from Comanche attacks.
With about 30 seconds left on the clock, and the Comanches holding the ball and an insurmountable 35 to 20 lead, Taylor called time out and huddled with Comanches coach Antwyne Golliday.
Unlike many Native American tribes, the Comanches were warriors and wandereres, made up of as many as 38 bands related only by loose friendship.
Also, George "Woogie" Watchetaker, Comanche Medicine Man, performed a ceremony, Doc Tate Nevaquaya performed a flute song, "I Saw an Eagle Fly", and Comanches Eddy and Donita Sovo, along with Lincie Battiest of the Choctaw Nation, performed The Lord's Prayer in sign language.
And while, "many people know of the Navajo code talkers of World War II; however, seventeen Comanches were also recruited specifically to serve as army code talkers during the same war.
Since early March, when he made the decision to have Chaminade play in Division III, Eagles coach Scott Drootin has known that the Comanches would be the main obstacle to to any championship.
Indeed, the success of the Comanche spelled their doom; "There had been too many Comanches (and their allies) raising too many horses and hunting too many bison on too small a land base.
1 billion, six-year EMD phase, the Comanche team will continue flight tests; validate Comanche's fully integrated digital navigation, communication and target acquisition and detection systems; and produce five new Comanches for development test and eight aircraft for U.