Combined System

Combined System

 

in construction mechanics the design of a supporting structure that is formed by a combination of systems differing in how they function under a load.

In a combined system, one of the structural elements is usually designed to work basically under tension-compression conditions and the other for flexure or lateral force. A braced system (arch or suspension system) is most often combined with an unbraced one (girder or beam). The merits of the one system compensate for the shortcomings of the other. For example, girder systems, which have considerable rigidity, can be combined with suspension systems, which have great supporting power, to create light and economical combined systems for long bridge spans.

Combined systems can be made from a single or from different materials (for example, a reinforced-concrete girder and a steel chain with suspenders for support), in the form of flat or spatial systems, and as statically determinable or indeterminable systems. The essential consideration in calculations of the combined system is the choice of the dimensions of its elements, so that the combination will achieve maximum effectiveness.

L. V. KASAB’IAN

References in periodicals archive ?
In this area of town a large portion of the sewer system is a combined system, i.
The combined system fits into existing backup environments, presenting itself to applications as a virtual tape library that transparently includes disk elements for high performance and RAID fault tolerance and tape elements for capacity, economy, and disaster recovery.
By April 2003, researchers should be able to tap into a combined system running at more than 11.
Ted Williams is the apostle of the Rotational system, and Mike Schmidt has developed his own system, which he identifies as the Combined system (an amalgam of Lau's and Williams' principles).
MFS Intelenet's service is the nation's only combined system for local and long distance telecommunications.
One of the risk factors considered in the rating is the sizeable capital plan for the combined system.
If you disconnect the air bag, you have defeated the combined system and increased your chances of being hurt.
The partnership's combined system has approximately 80 million barrels of storage capacity, and includes crude oil and refined product pipelines, refined product terminals, a petroleum and specialty liquids storage and terminaling business, as well as crude oil storage tank facilities.
The partnership's combined system has approximately 77 million barrels of storage capacity, and includes crude oil and refined product pipelines, refined product terminals, a petroleum and specialty liquids storage and terminaling business, as well as crude oil storage tank facilities.
SpectraRep and Chyron are providing a demonstration of combined system capabilities at the IAEM Conference, Booth 519 (Orlando, FL.
As a result, debt service coverage for the combined system improved to over 4 times (x) in 2005 from about 3x in 2001, and for the same period equity to capitalization improved to a solid 71% from 69%, with current cash available to cover about 180 days of operations.
Fitch also recognizes that AWU debt service coverage and liquidity levels have been below their historical averages over the last two years and expects to see improvements in both areas, so as to not make a negative impact on the combined system.

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