Comintern


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Related to Comintern: Anti Comintern Pact

Comintern

(kəmĭntārn`) [acronym for Communist International], name given to the Third InternationalInternational,
any of a succession of international socialist and Communist organizations of the 19th and 20th cent. The First International

The First International was founded in London in 1864 as the International Workingmen's Association.
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, founded at Moscow in 1919. Vladimir Ilyich LeninLenin, Vladimir Ilyich
, 1870–1924, Russian revolutionary, the founder of Bolshevism and the major force behind the Revolution of Oct., 1917. Early Life
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 feared a resurgence of the Second, or Socialist, International under non-Communist leadership. The Comintern was established to claim Communist leadership of the world socialist movement. The delegates to the first congress were mainly Russians, with some members of left-wing socialist splinter groups who happened to be in the Soviet Union and one German (who abstained on the crucial vote of establishing the organization). Gregory ZinovievZinoviev, Grigori Evseyevich
, 1883–1936, Soviet Communist leader, originally named Radomyslsky. He joined the Russian Social Democratic Labor party in 1901 and sided with Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction after 1903 (see Bolshevism and Menshevism).
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 was the first president of the Comintern. The second congress laid down (1920) the "Twenty-one Conditions" for membership, firmly establishing a differentiation between the socialist parties and the Communist parties. The Comintern gained strength during the 1920s, but its efforts to foment revolution, notably in Germany, were unsuccessful. In 1935, the Comintern abandoned the membership policies established under the "Twenty-one Conditions" and began to form coalitions, or popular fronts, with bourgeois parties. In 1936, Germany and Japan concluded the so-called Anti-Comintern Pact, ostensibly to protect the world from the Third International. The pact was renewed in 1941 with 11 other countries as signatories. In order to allay the misgivings of its allies in World War II, the Soviet Union dissolved the Comintern in 1943.

Bibliography

See B. Lazitch and M. M. Drachkovitch, Biographical Dictionary of the Comintern (1973); study by J. Riddell (1986).

References in periodicals archive ?
But as Manley points out, there was a third possible revolutionary union: not just as a counter-factual so impracticable that it did not even get to be formulated; nor even as a strategic objective, like a national red miners' union; but as an express directive and instruction of the Comintern itself.
He makes clear his distaste for the "current fixation on communist subterfuge, Moscow domination, and Comintern funding of espionage and propaganda" put forth by various anti-communist scholars (including Harvey Klehr and John Earl Haynes, amongst others).
21) But the minimalist industrial policy focused on popular welfare that London advocated was as different from Ordzhonikidze's as the Comintern policy London advocated was from "popular frontism.
Given a sneak preview of the original, relatively mild Bukharinist version, which anticipated an indeterminate period of capitalist growth and saw continued political value in united front tactics, at the Anglo-American Secretariat in late 1927, William Gallacher cast his mind back to the Second Comintern Congress in 1920 when Lenin had presented 'Left Wing' Communism--An Infantile Disorder to warn delegates (and Gallacher personally) against the very practices the ECCI was now advocating; he could hardly believe it.
In spite of this, the fact that they were ahead of some places is more indicative of a failure of the Comintern than any success of Latin American Communism.
In Greece today, for instance, the debates that raged in the early congresses of the Comintern are being replayed with a new and immediate urgency.
From a contemporary perspective, the analysis is necessarily somewhat limited by the period in which it was produced, failing to marshal evidence, as Morris himself notes, with regards to, for example, American interventions into the affairs of other countries in order to subvert communist parties or the internal deliberations of the Comintern or its successors, but as a historical document it has value in demonstrating a relatively early effort to think beyond the monolithic understandings of international communism that were prevalent in much of the American public discourse.
Where the old Comintern of Lenin sought to instigate communist revolutions across the West and its empires, post-Cold War America decided to promote democratic revolutions to remake the world in the image of late 20th-century America.
He was commissioned as a major and lent to the Comintern.
The Soviet Union came into being as a revolutionary state that challenged any given status quo in principle, starting with the Comintern and ending three generations later with Afghanistan.
An example of these would be the Comintern, whose full name, Communist International, suggests its transnational mission.
In fact, Vernon makes a solid argument here covering all aspects of this topic: "The Republic was not communist; the communists were not communist; and the Comintern and Soviet Union did not interfere decisively with Republican affairs.