Commagene

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Commagene

(kŏməjē`nē), ancient district of N Syria, on the Euphrates River and S of the Taurus range, now in SE Asian Turkey. Its metropolis, Samosata, was founded by Samos, the king of Commagene, c.150 B.C. The fertile agricultural district was made part of the Assyrian Empire and later of the Persian Empire. In the period after Alexander the Great, it gradually assumed independence under the Seleucid kings of Syria, and its governor, Ptolemy, revolted in 162 B.C., declaring absolute independence. The ruling dynasty of independent Commagene was related to the Seleucids. In 64 B.C., King Antiochus I, a Roman ally, had his territory enlarged by Pompey, but when he aided the Parthians he was deposed in 38 B.C. by Antony. The spectacular ruins of Antiochus's tomb and its colossal statues are on Mt. NemrutNemrut, Mount,
Turk. Nemrut Dağ, mountain in SE Turkey, in the Anti-Taurus Mts. Rising 7,052 ft (2,150 m), it is the site of the mausoleum of Antiochus I (c.69–c.34 B.C.), king of ancient Commagene.
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. Commagene was annexed by Tiberius (A.D. 17) but a new king, Antiochus IV, was instated by Caligula (A.D. 38), was soon deposed, and then reinstated (A.D. 41) by Claudius. Finally Vespasian permanently annexed Commagene (A.D. 72) to the Roman province of Syria. The territory was invaded by Khosrow IKhosrow I
(Khosrow Anüshirvan) , d. 579, king of Persia (531–79), greatest of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, monarchs. He is also known as Chosroes I or Khosru I. He succeeded his father, Kavadh I, but before becoming king, Khosrow was responsible for a great massacre (c.
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 of Persia in 542, but he withdrew the same year when his campaign was checked by BelisariusBelisarius
, c.505–565, Byzantine general under Justinian I. After helping to suppress (532) the dangerous Nika riot (see Blues and Greens), he defeated (533–34) the Vandals of Africa, and captured their king.
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.