Commendation


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Commendation

 

(1) In ancient Rome the right assumed by Julius Caesar and subsequently by Augustus and his successors to recommend to the Senate their own candidates for the remaining republican offices.

(2) In Western Europe in the early medieval period, an agreement sealing the act of giving oneself over to the protection of another, “stronger” person, who became patron of the former (the commended). The institution of commendation, which established relations of personal dependency of the commended with respect to the patron, formalized various underlying relationships. One type of commendation was the act of a vassal acknowledging his subordination to the power of the seignior, which was followed by an oath of fidelity and the granting of a benefice or fief to the vassal. A commendation of this type formalized the relationship of vassalage within the ruling class then taking shape.

A second form of commendation was that of impoverished free individuals to a large landowner. In this arrangement, a “weak” person gave himself over to the protection of a “stronger,” richer person and accepted not only personal dependence but frequently also material dependence: in many cases, the commended person was entrusted with land belonging to the patron. Such commendation was the legal formalization of a peasant’s dependence on a feudal landowner.

References in periodicals archive ?
For LJ @Liljzhonne3, the commendation is quite personal.
The ceremony, which took place at Flagstaff House -- the home of Commander British Forces Cyprus, Major General James Illingworth -- in Episkopi, also saw another 15 commendations awarded to members of staff, both civilian and military.
Approved the Texas State Technical College Vocational Nursing Education Program in Harlingen, Texas, granted Initial Program Approval Status, and issued a commendation and a recommendation.
Lt Cmdr Martin Lanni won the Air Force Cross while Flight Sergeant Euan Gibson got a Commander in Chief Fleet Commendation.
Chief DeMoura also issued a commendation last week to Officer Keith C.
Along with the commendation from the chief constable, Gareth was also presented with a commendation fromthe president of the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) for his actions along with a cheque for pounds 200.
The firearms officer, who was known as Ricky and joined West Mercia Police in 2003, was set to receive the force's highest honour, the Chief Constable's Certificate of Commendation, for arresting a violent gunman in Shrewsbury in April 2006.
The 43-year-old officer, who joined West Mercia Police in 2003, was set to receive the force's highest honour, the Chief Constable's Certificate of Commendation, for arresting a violent gunman in Shrewsbury in April 2006.
County Firefighter Scott Greenelsh, left, from Station 107 pats Fair Oaks Ranch Community School student Marilyn Cabrera on the shoulder after handing her a commendation as her parents Bernardo, center, and Sandra look on Friday during a school assembly.
According to the minister, Fuji earned the commendation for developing the Subaru R1e electric vehicle.
Her awards and decorations include the Defense Superior Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster; Legion of Merit with Oak Leaf Cluster; Bronze Star Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster, Meritorious Service Medal with 5 Oak Leaf Clusters; Joint Service Commendation Medal; and Army Commendation Medal with 3 Oak Leaf Clusters among other awards and decorations.
Ray Rogers of Sarnia has been chosen to receive the Minister of Veterans Affairs Commendation, awarded to Canadians who have contributed to the care and well being of veterans and to the remembrance of their sacrifices and achievements.