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(1) In ancient Rome the right assumed by Julius Caesar and subsequently by Augustus and his successors to recommend to the Senate their own candidates for the remaining republican offices.

(2) In Western Europe in the early medieval period, an agreement sealing the act of giving oneself over to the protection of another, “stronger” person, who became patron of the former (the commended). The institution of commendation, which established relations of personal dependency of the commended with respect to the patron, formalized various underlying relationships. One type of commendation was the act of a vassal acknowledging his subordination to the power of the seignior, which was followed by an oath of fidelity and the granting of a benefice or fief to the vassal. A commendation of this type formalized the relationship of vassalage within the ruling class then taking shape.

A second form of commendation was that of impoverished free individuals to a large landowner. In this arrangement, a “weak” person gave himself over to the protection of a “stronger,” richer person and accepted not only personal dependence but frequently also material dependence: in many cases, the commended person was entrusted with land belonging to the patron. Such commendation was the legal formalization of a peasant’s dependence on a feudal landowner.

References in periodicals archive ?
This commendation ceremony was attended by over 400 guests that included students, their parents Khan graced the occasion as the Chief Guest.
K Lines Ltd held a commendation ceremony for long-serving Filipino seafarers at the MOL Group seafarer manning company Magsaysay MOL Marine Inc.
She is due to receive a commendation at the British Transport Police's Awards and Commendation ceremony at Glasgow City Chambers on December 1.
The Commendation Ceremony, held at The Village Hotel, Bromborough, was in recognition of acts of bravery, commitment, courage and leadership.
Abu Dhabi The Indian embassy will honour 30 blue collar workers in a commendation ceremony, embassy officials announced at a press conference yesterday.
21 /PRNewswire/ -- Volkswagen dealer Bobby Beck received the Diamond Pin Award at a commendation ceremony in Wolfsburg, Germany earlier this month.