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(1) In ancient Rome the right assumed by Julius Caesar and subsequently by Augustus and his successors to recommend to the Senate their own candidates for the remaining republican offices.

(2) In Western Europe in the early medieval period, an agreement sealing the act of giving oneself over to the protection of another, “stronger” person, who became patron of the former (the commended). The institution of commendation, which established relations of personal dependency of the commended with respect to the patron, formalized various underlying relationships. One type of commendation was the act of a vassal acknowledging his subordination to the power of the seignior, which was followed by an oath of fidelity and the granting of a benefice or fief to the vassal. A commendation of this type formalized the relationship of vassalage within the ruling class then taking shape.

A second form of commendation was that of impoverished free individuals to a large landowner. In this arrangement, a “weak” person gave himself over to the protection of a “stronger,” richer person and accepted not only personal dependence but frequently also material dependence: in many cases, the commended person was entrusted with land belonging to the patron. Such commendation was the legal formalization of a peasant’s dependence on a feudal landowner.

References in periodicals archive ?
He shook my hand and congratulated me and said I was receiving a commendation which was a big surprise for me.
Flt Lt Lynn said: "The commendation is a huge honour, however without the professional and committed attitude of those I worked along side it would not have been possible.
Holiday Inn, Coventry Joint Winner of the Employer of Choice Award in the Large Category Commendation Health & Wellbeing Award in the Large/Corporate Category HOLIDAY Inn, Coventry is a 158-bedroomed hotel on the outskirts of Coventry situated off Junction 2 of the M6 and close to the Walsgrave Triangle.
PC Griffiths was also awarded a divisional commendation last year for his efforts in helping to catch a hoaxer who claimed to have abducted a child.
He also received a chief constable's commendation for his part in the arrest of an "unstable" man with a firearm.
Ray Rogers of Sarnia has been chosen to receive the Minister of Veterans Affairs Commendation, awarded to Canadians who have contributed to the care and well being of veterans and to the remembrance of their sacrifices and achievements.
Commendations recognise a high degree of bravery above and beyond that normally expected and today almost half will receive the Met's highest award for courage, High Commendations, for supreme courage in the line of duty.
At a ceremony last night North Wales Chief Constable Richard Brunstrom handed commendations to the five team leaders who helped to bring Hardman, ``the vampire killer'', to justice.
Hacopian, 35, served as an infantryman in 1991's Persian Gulf War, winning the medals, ribbons and commendations that he displays with obvious pride.
Freedom Team Salute also recognized seven Army Veterans who served post-Vietnam through Desert Shield/Desert Storm with Veterans Commendations and two Army Supporters at the Safari Club's Veterans Rendezvous Breakfast.
It may be noted that the Foreign Minister's Commendations are awarded to individuals and groups with outstanding achievements in international fields, to acknowledge their contributions to the promotion of friendship between Japan and other countries and areas.
Deputy Chief Constable Mike Barton, who presented Carol with her certificate, said: "The force rarely gives commendations to non-police personnel but Carol's sterling effort this year had to be acknowledged.