Civil Aviation

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Civil Aviation


a sector of the national economy serving the needs of the national economy and the public for air transport. Civil aviation is also used for aerial spraying of crops to provide protection against pests, for aerial photographic surveying, for prospecting for valuable minerals, and for other tasks in which it replaces ground equipment. Civil aviation possesses a fleet of aircraft and helicopters; a network of air lines, airports, and airfields with their technical facilities: radio and weather stations; plants and repair facilities; scientific research institutions; and schools.

In the USSR, civil aviation (Aeroflot) began developing in 1923 (with the creation of the All-Russian Society of the Volunteer Air Force, known as Dobrolet). Civil aviation has been unified under the Ministry of Civil Aviation of the USSR (created in 1964). It carries out major transport services and serves agriculture in protecting farm crops against pests, weeds, and crop diseases, as well as in topdressing plants with mineral fertilizers. Civil aviation also helps in studying forested areas and protecting them against fires and pests. Civil aviation has also participated in developing the regions of the Far North. It is involved in surveying ice in the basin of the Arctic Ocean and serves fisheries and the hunting industry. It provides help in carrying out various kinds of scientific exploratory and research work and carries out aerial photographic surveying. Civil aviation helps in laying oil and gas pipelines and in building various industrial projects. The air medical service has also assumed great importance.


Grazhdanskaia aviatsiia SSSR, 1917–1967. Moscow, 1968.


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