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The study of environmental relations of groups of organisms, such as communities.



a branch of ecology concerned with biocenoses, that is, communities of many species of animals, plants, and microorganisms. The term “synecology” was proposed by the Swiss botanist C. Schröter in 1902 and adopted by the Brussels International Botanical Congress in 1910 to designate the body of knowledge relating to plant communities, or phytocenoses. Thus, synecology originally was a synonym for phytocenology. Most phytocenologists eventually regarded synecology simply as the part of phytocenology embracing the ecological study of phytocenoses.

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The other chapters discuss molecular biology, engineering (yes, there is an app for that), behavioral ecology, community ecology, use of surface hydrocarbons for identification and aging of specimens and determination of PMI, standard practices, international collaborations and training, and current global trends and frontiers; all are informative.
2007) has now become widely appreciated in community ecology by considering the impacts of phylogenetic history of species on structuring species composition patterns.
2004 The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology.
Early studies of avian community ecology emphasized the role of vegetative complexity in determining avian community composition (e.
Therefore, knowledge about the global connectivity and community ecology of wetlands are important for conservation management,"
Community ecology of stream fishes; concepts, approaches, and techniques.
Thus, the basic principle of community ecology of mosquito and their interaction with resources, predators, pathogens and controphic species is important to understand the prey-predator relationships in the environment.
Finally, "Biosemiotics" publishes papers on biological theory from a range of disciplines, including social semiotics, community ecology, communication science, artificial intelligence, organic manufacturing, molecular semiotics, and, sensing and cognitive processes.
Collectively, they develop concepts from research performed within diverse native environments (freshwater, marine, terrestrial), using a wide range of taxa (mammals, salamanders, fish, insects, snails, crustaceans, seaweeds, bacteria), across many disciplines (behavioral and community ecology, neuroscience, molecular biology, evolution, and systematics).
The disciplines of community ecology and epidemiology treat complex interactions among species, so a synthesis and integration of the 2 fields are long overdue.
Considering that most of the large mammal species were extirpated in the last 10,000-40,0000 years (Martin and Wright 1967), a strong discussion of the historical bias associated with community ecology and ecosystems would have been valuable as context for the apparent role of herbivores today.

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