The obvious model for a Concert of East Asia would be the nineteenth-century Concert of Europe
(Kupchan and Kupchan 1992).
In the Concert of Europe
, according to Elrod, "unanimity rather than majority rule prevailed.
Figes does not mention Baumgart's 1999 post-Soviet analysis of the role of the Concert of Europe
The 19th-century Concert of Europe
figures prominently, and Kupchan describes both its operation and effective dissolution with the Crimean War.
With these three problems posing dangers to the world, Van Evera calls for a "Concert of Cooperation" among the great powers, along the lines of the Concert of Europe
established in 1815 (pp.
One of Cohrs's basic themes is that the 1920s witnessed an attempt to create a postwar, transatlantic system that would replace the ruined nineteenth-century system of political equilibrium with one based on what he calls "Legitimate Equilibrium," in which nations recognized their place in a new kind of Concert of Europe
The concert idea implicitly or explicitly takes as its model the Concert of Europe
, which lasted from 1815 to 1854.
To illustrate how this approach should be used, Cronin provides three nineteenth-century case studies: the formation and operation of the Concert of Europe
(and the Holy Alliance), plus the coalescence of many actors into what became Germany and Italy.
A new Concert of Europe
was born in Vienna in 1815 ushering in the second international system which was based upon a balance of power designed to prevent a hegemon from arising again on the continent.
In contrast, the Concert of Europe
that emerged in 1815 preserved peace for decades precisely because it included a vanquished France in its great power councils.
Tsar Alexander I resolved the dilemma which the Greek crisis of 1821 presented to Russia's Orthodox sensibilities by opting to uphold the Concert of Europe
and Metternichean order: any fragmentation of the Ottoman Empire along ethnic or religious lines raised a dangerous precedent for the break-up of Russia's own multinational empire.
But for Schroeder, balance of power politics were rejected in the nineteenth century, thereby producing the Concert of Europe
, a system based on political equilibrium.