conscientious objector

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conscientious objector,

person who, on the grounds of conscience, resists the authority of the state to compel military service. Such resistance, emerging in time of war, may be based on membership in a pacifistic religious sect, such as the Society of FriendsFriends, Religious Society of,
religious body originating in England in the middle of the 17th cent. under George Fox. The members are commonly called Quakers, originally a term of derision.
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 (Quakers), the DukhoborsDukhobors
or Doukhobors
[Russ.,=spirit wrestlers], religious group, prominent in Russia from the 18th to the 19th cent. The name was coined by the Orthodox opponents of the Dukhobors, who had originally called themselves Christians of the Universal Brotherhood.
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, or Jehovah's WitnessesJehovah's Witnesses,
Christian group originating in the United States at the end of the 19th cent., organized by Charles Taze Russell, whose doctrine centers on the Second Coming of Christ.
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, or on personal religious or humanitarian convictions. Political opposition to the particular aim of conscription, such as that maintained by the CopperheadsCopperheads,
in the American Civil War, a reproachful term for those Northerners sympathetic to the South, mostly Democrats outspoken in their opposition to the Lincoln administration. They were especially strong in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, where Clement L.
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 during the Civil War, by radical groups during World War I and, to a more limited extent, during World War II, and by large numbers during the Vietnam War, is usually considered in a separate category. The problem of conscientious objectors, although present in different forms since the beginning of the Christian era, became acute in World Wars I and II because of the urgent demands for manpower of the warring governments. The United States and Great Britain allowed members of recognized pacifistic religious groups to substitute for combat service: (1) noncombatant military service, (2) nonmilitary activity related to the war effort, or (3) activity considered socially valuable. Pacifists without recognized claim to exemption were liable to harsher treatment, and about 5,000 conscientious objectors were imprisoned in the United States between 1940 and 1945. The postwar Selective Service Act, passed in 1948 and amended in 1951, required that conscientious objection be based on religious belief and training that included belief in a Supreme Being. In 1970 the Supreme Court removed the religious requirement and allowed objection based on a deeply held and coherent ethical system with no reference to a Supreme Being. In 1971 the Supreme Court refused to allow objection to a particular war, a decision affecting thousands of objectors to the Vietnam War. Some 50,000–100,000 men are estimated to have left the United States to avoid being drafted to serve in that war.

Bibliography

See G. C. Field, Pacifism and Conscientious Objection (1945); M. Q. Sibley and P. E. Jacob, Conscription of Conscience (1952, repr. 1965); L. Schlissel, ed., Conscience in America (1968); G. C. Zahn, War, Conscience, and Dissent (1967); M. Ferber and S. Lynd, The Resistance (1971).

References in periodicals archive ?
Conchie says there are a handful of cognitive flaws that everyone -- executives included -- are particularly apt to fall prey to.
According to Tom Rath and Barry Conchie, coauthors of Strengths Based Leadership: Great Leaders, Teams, and Why People Follow, strengths are what make leaders great.
In this interview, the first of two parts, Rath and Conchie discuss followers' four basic needs and why it is important for leaders to understand and meet those needs -- and the challenges leaders face in meeting them.
In the mixed pairs tournament, along with his partner Pat Conchie from Lancashire, the Midlander came back from 14-7 behind to defeat Don and Mary Graham from Lancashire to win 15-14 and collect a brand new set of bowls.
New signing Joe Conchie has been forced to retire from football after forced to retire from football after on-going knee problems.
There are ways to make this process work while improving engagement and boosting leadership performance, says Barry Conchie, a Gallup Senior Scientist and coauthor of the bestseller Strengths Based Leadership.
The members include Paul Harold, 42, of Stanley, County Durham, brothers Mark Burton, 36, also from Stanley, and Ian Burton, from Lanchester, County Durham, and Malcolm Conchie, 41, of Catton, near Allendale, Northumberland.
He would operate [Auglaize Provico] almost on a paternal basis," says Barry Conchie, a Gallup leadership consultant.
Most of the heroin was found in a drainpipe after an English drug trafficker called Wayne Conchie was discovered trying to flush it down the toilet in the house in which Mulhall was a resident.
Wall Face education consultant Yvonne Conchie said: "Romans are the usual subject studied on Hadrian's Wall by schools, but we want to encourage teachers to remember that learning right across the curriculum and age ranges can be illuminated by Hadrian's Wall world heritage site.
There were hat-tricks for McNamee, Morgan & Campbell plus a brace for Conchie.