Conciliar Movement

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Conciliar Movement


a movement for the reform of the Catholic Church that developed during the late 14th and early 15th centuries among higher circles in the church and among Western European secular feudal lords.

The conciliar movement, which asserted the supremacy of ecumenical councils over the Roman papacy, developed as a result of the formation and consolidation of centralized national states in Europe, as well as the desire of the national churches to be more independent and less subordinate to the pope. In addition, the ruling class became interested in church reform owing to the decline of papal authority and the growth of popular heretical movements, especially the Hussite movement in Bohemia in the early 15th century. The immediate cause of the conciliar movement was the Great Western Schism (1378–1417). The supporters of the conciliar movement insisted that ecumenical councils be held regularly, independently of the pope, and that they function as the highest church body. The French clergy was particularly active in the conciliar movement (seeGALLICANISM).

Convened in 1409 on the initiative of several cardinals and without the consent of the pope, the Council of Pisa was intended to limit the pope’s authority. The Catholic Church does not regard this council as legal. The principle of conciliar supremacy was proclaimed by the Council of Constance (1414–18) and by the Council of Basel (1431–49), during its first phase (through 1437). Pope Eugene IV pushed through a condemnation of the conciliar movement at the Council of Florence (1438–45), which was convened in opposition to the Council of Basel. In 1460, Pius II issued a papal bull forbidding any appeal to the authority of an ecumenical council.


References in periodicals archive ?
Few historians have tried to transcend the struggles faced by Martin V and Eugenius IV to combat the occupation of Rome and conciliarism in order to situate papal achievements within contemporary expectations and values.
On conciliarism and the Anglican Church, see Paul Valliere, Conciliarism: A History of Decision-Making in the Church (Cambridge, U.
The principle of Conciliarism was known since the Council of Constance, the largest medieval gathering, where John Hus was burned and which finally ended the Great Schism.
It demonstrates perils of conciliarism and papalism, of localism and universalism.
Although scholars of conciliarism such as Francis Oakley have pleaded for the importance of conciliarism and Gallicanism as a valid Catholic tradition, Perreau-Saussine is the first to describe modern Catholic political thought in relation to its Gallican background.
More specifically, Arjomand believes that Khamenehi's "backing of the June 2009 putsch" has changed "the apparently robust post-revolutionary developmental course of the first and only theocracy in modern history into his fragile personal rule over an inharmonious amalgam of clerical conciliarism and brute post revolutionary military intelligence domination.
Nor did they think that collegiality would lead to conciliarism.
The volume is divided into sections covering ideas and events, people, and places and includes detailed articles on general topics such as canon law, humanism and conciliarism as well as specific events such as the Great Schism of the West, and the Congress of Mantua.
McNeill maintained that all major Christian traditions hanker after conciliarism, by which he meant that to some degree the fundamentals of conciliar thought characterize all Christian bodies that are governed by synods, parish councils, or other assemblies.
In Volume 1 Haight describes the historical development and summarizes principles of historical ecclesiology for the earliest church, the pre-Constantinian church, the post-Constantinian church (300-600), and the church in the Middle Ages, both under the Gregorian reform in the early medieval period and in light of conciliarism in the late medieval period.
Paul II was a legitimate pope, resident in Rome and not in the Palais des Papes in the south of France, but he still had to deal with the rising influence of the cardinalate, the intellectual appeal of conciliarism (a notion that sought to subordinate papal power to that of a council), the shifting priorities of the larger realms of France and the Holy Roman Empire, and the external threat of the Ottoman Turks under the brilliant and fearsome Sultan Mehmet II.
Pius II's bull of 1460 formally banned it, but conciliarism lived on and gained new life in the hands of Protestant reformers.